Acts in violation of the criminal law designed to bring financial reward to an offender
False Pretense or Fraud
Involves misrepresenting a fact in a way that causes a victim to willingly give his or her property to the wrongdoer, who then keeps it.
Are run by swindlers who aspire to separate a victim from his or her hard-earned money
Owner of a business burning his or her property down or hiring someone to do it in order to escape financial problems
Social Disorganization Theory
Focuses on the conditions within the urban environment that affect crime rates. Shaw and Mckay
Holds that crime is a function of the conflict between the goals people have and the means they can use to obtain them legally
Cultural Deviance Theory
Combines elements of both strain and social disorganization theory. Use of subcultures
Social Ecology Theory
The conflicts and problems of urban social life and communities, including fear, unemployment, deterioration, and siege mentality, influence crime rates.
Mutual trust, a willingness to intervene in the supervision of children, and the maintenence of public order.
Using sociological lens, structural strain suggests that economic and social sources of strain shape collective human behavior
Using a psychological reference, individual strain theories suggest that individual life experiences cause some people to suffer pain and misery,feelings which are then translated into antisocial behaviors
People who adopt the goals of society but lack the means to attain them seek alternatives, such as crime. Strain Theory
Institutional Anomie Theory
The desire to accumulate wealth and material goods pervade all aspects of American Life. Strain
General Strain Theory
Strain has a variety of sources. Strain causes crime in the absence of adequate coping mechanisms.
The rules or laws that a sub-culture may have that are more important than actual laws
Miller's Focal Concern Theory
Citezens who obey the street rules of lower-class life find themselves in conflict with the dominant culture.
Cohen's Theory of Deliquent Gang's
Status frustration of lower class boys, created by their failure to achieve middle-class success, causes them to join gangs.
Cloward and Ohlin's Theory of Oppportunity
Blockage of conventional opportunities causes lower-class youths to join criminal, conflict, or retreatist gangs
Differential Association Theory
People learn to commit crime from exposure to antisocial definitions
Differential Reinforcement Theory
Criminal behavior depends on the persons experiences with rewards for conventional behaviors and punishment for devient ones. being rewarded for deviance leads to crime
Youths learn ways of neutralizing moral retraints and periodically drift in and out of criminal behavior patterns
Hirschi's control theory
A persons bond to society prevents him or her from violatingsocial rules. If the bond weakens, the person id free to commit crime.
People enter into law-violating careers when they are labeled for their acts and organize their personalities around the labels.
Judges practices in some jurisdictions of imposing harsher sentences on African American only in some instinces.
Life Course Theories
As people go through the life course, social and personal traits undergo change and influence behavior.
Criminals go through lifestyle changes during their offending career. Crime influences lifestyle and changing lifestyle influences crime.
General Theory of Crime and Deliquency
Five critical life domains shape criminal behavior and are shaped by criminal behavior.
As people mature, the factors that influence their propensity to commit crime change. In childhood, family factors are criticle; in adulthood, marital and job factors are key.
Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential (ICAP) Theory
People with antisocial potential are at risk to commit antisocial acts. AP can be viewed as both a long and short-term phenomenon.
General Theoryof Crime
Crime and criminality are seperate concepts. People choose to commit crime when they lack self-control. People lacking self-control will sieze criminal opportunities.
Individuals exposed to coercive environments develop socia-psychological deficts that enhance their probability of engaging in criminal behavior.