What percentage of the glomeruli in both kidneys must be nonfunctional before serum chemistry changes indicate renal disease?
What laboratory test evaluates kidney function and is a breakdown product of protein?
Creatinine concentrations in serum are influenced by
Nonrenal causes of increased levels of urea might include
the amount of protein ingested
Decrease in albumin may occur in
chronic liver disease
Fibrinogen is considered a part of
total plasma protein
When evaluating the liver of dogs and cats, AST should be evaluated in conjunction with
Which of the following substances is a by-product of muscle metabolism, produced at a consistant rate, adn filtered out by the renal glomeruli?
Which of the following substances used to evaluate kidney filtration and function is excreted by the kidneys and up to 40% reabsorbed by the tubules?
when blood glucose levels exceed the renal threshold for absorption of glucose
A false positive urine glucose reading may result from administration of
An increase in unconjugated bilirubin may be the result of
either hepatic or prehepatic failure
ALT is also known as
Horses typically have higher _____ values than other species?
What blood chenistry test is not a test for liver damage?
When referring to the alteration of bilirubin in the liver, the verb conjugated means
to join together
A test done to help diagnose hyperthyroidism is
When performing urinalysis testing, the sample should be analyzed within _____ minutes or refrigeration is required.
For cytologic evaluation of urine, which of the following conditions should be observed?
the specimen should be centerfuged as soon as possible
Brown urine most likely contains
Normal voided urine is clear, except in which of the following species?
The average urine specific gravity for a healthy adult dog is
The average urine specific gravity for a healthy adult cat is
In a healthy animal, deminished water intake or loss of water would result in ____ urine specific gravity.
The presence of protein in the urine may indicate
Which of these would not be associated with ketones in the urine?
Mucus is normally often seen in _____ urine.
Stress and epinephrine releaes in cats may cause an increase in
A kidney function test that is useful in birds and dalmations is
What serum component can be used as a screening test for hypothyroidism?
Total protein levels are ____ in a dehydrated animal.
Bile acids aid in the digestion of
Fibrinogen is produced in the
Gamma globulins can be estimated by subtracting
albumin from serum total protein
EDTA plasma cannot be used for tesing ____ plasma levels because EDTA forms a complex with it.
The ability of hte renal tubules to concentrate or dilute a urine sample is assessed by what component of the urinalysis?
Bilirubinuria is considered a normal finding in what species?
A normal adult horse would most likely have a urinary pH of
Leukocytes in the urine sediment and a positive nitrite reaction on the urinary colormetric strip give presumptive evidence that the patient may have a
Aged urine samples left at room temperature and exposed to UV light may cause a false negative result in which of the following biochemical tests?
Urinary pH is not affected by the
presence of crystals in the urine
Uric acid is the major nitrogenous waste in
Which of the following statements regarding creatinine is false?
it is a less reliable indicator of renal function than BUN
What biochemical tests are not considered part of a primary hepatic profile?
BUN and creatinine
The current test of choice for evaluating liver function is
The main function of bicarbonate is to
maintain balanced body pH levels
Kidney disease results in accumulation of metabolic waste in the blood, a condition known as
The normal pH of an omnivore is generally
Which of the following is a typical specific gravity for dilute porcine urine?
In what species is ketonuria most commonly found?
In order for glycosuria to occur, which of the following must also be present?
Urine specific gravity is actually a measure of which of the following?
renal tubular function
What substance increases in the urine in glomerular disease?
Urine often has a sweet odor if which of the following in present?
What urinalysis finding is consistent with bacterial cystitis in the dog and cat?
Decreased total proein can suggest all of the following except
Isosthenuric urine would read _____ on a refractometer.
Urine specific gravity readings indicate
Blood levels of total bilirubin are used primarily to evaluate function of the
Serum chemistry tests for acute pancreatitis include
amylase and lipase
Serum electrolyte levels should be determined when evaluating function of the
Kidney disease leads to accumulation of metabolic waste in the blood, a condition known as
The gland that iss elevated by measurement of blood levels of T3 and T4 is the
Ammonia is metabolized by the liver and eliminated by the kidneys. Levels of which metabolic by-product of ammonia are measured to assess kidney function?
What is the underlying cause of icterus?
The urine of an animal with hematuria is most likely to be
cloudy and red
The specific gravity of urine is a measure of
the weight of urine compared with the weight of water
Isosthenuria is urine that would most likely have a specific gravity
How would you expect the specific gravity of dilute, colorless urine to compare with that of dark yellow urine?
An alkaline urine pH can be the result of
urinary tract obstruction
Blood in the urine is reported as
Dark yellow, cloudy urine generally would be expected to have a
high specific gravity
Carnivores generally have
Vegetable diets generally yield
What three species is ALT liver specific
Cats, Primates, Dogs
BUN helps to aseiss function in which organ
Determination of fibrinogen is useful in the detection of the inflammatory process? TRUE or FALSE