the ability and willingness to assess claims and make judgments on the basis of well supported reasons and evidence, rather than emotion or anecdote
3 important parts of critical thinking
question assumptions, evaluate evidence, consider options
who is the father of psychology
the belief that the bumps on the skull represent more or less of a certain characteristic about a person
analyzing immediate experience and are most interested in WHAT IS HAPPENING.
interested most in WHY it's happening. not much focus on internal
patients symptoms had mental causes not just bodily causes. anxiety was a big focus. how the unconscious mind influences behaviour
chemical imbalances, etc. how bodily functions effect feelings, thoughts and actions
learning perspective (a) behaviourism
looks at how the environment/circumstance affects our actions. ie. the mind has nothing to do with our actions, in their opinion
learning perspective (b) social cognitive
took behaviourism and melded it with the idea of mental processes. not only do we learn from our environment, but also from our own values, etc.
emphasizes mental processes. memory, throughts, problem solving, etc. currently one of the driving forces of psychology
emphasizes the social and cultural influences on behaviour. they focus on social rules, social roles we play. friends lovers, etc. how they affect how we behave.
social constructionist perspective
our ways of understanding the world are shaped by the world we live in. our perspective of what is happening. one persons reality vs. the other persons. understanding that not everyone brings the same perspective. also focuses on the contest. the immediate context and also your broader context. how everything you have known/done during your life affects your perspective
dealing mostly with unconscious dynamics. intuition , etc. things we do that put obstacles in our own way without realizing it. freudian slips have underlying reason, they were no accident.
personal growth and achievement of human potential. positive psychology- how do people excel, rather than why did they fail. what went RIGHT. (long marriage, etc)
social inequalities (not just gender, also race, social class, sexual preference, etc. how these power influences affect how we behave. when you're in or out of power.
methods that yield descriptions of behaviour but not necessarily causal explanations. includes case studies, observational studies, surveys, psychological tests
indepth study of a particular indicidual being studied or treated which may be used to formulate broder research hypotheses. extremely necessary for rare phenomenon like effect of rare disease, of unethical cases
researchers unobtrusively, carefully and systematically observe and record behaviour without interfering with behaviour. naturalistic- people watching. laboratory - controlled environment
measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values. these tests can be objective and projective. objective- yes, no, true/false on a topic. projective- ink blots, answers interpreted.
3 characteristics of a good test include
standardization, reliability, validity
includes uniform procedures for giving and scoring the test. individuals outcome or score is compared to norms. given to large groups (tens of thousands) , establishing standards of performance
would 2 different researchers using this test on the same person get the same results
the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure.
questionnaires and interviews that directly measure your opinions, beliefs, etc. Should have a representative sample. popular uses volunteers rather than representative samples. volunteer bias and socially desirable responding can occur
looks for a consistent relationship between 2 variables. how strongly two varialbes are related to one another. range from -1.0 to 1.0. When your correlation is 0 there is no relationship between the variables.correlations show patterns not causes.
one goes up , the other goes up. or one goes down , the other goes down. eg. the more you study, the higher your average.
one goes up the other goes down.
variables the experimenter manipulates. eg. one group drugs the other placebo.
variables that the experimenter predicts will be affected by independent variable. eg. grades, when the stress is higher
unintended changes in subjects behaviour due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter. strategies for preventing these effects- single and double blind studies
cross sectional research
all participants are studied at one time. eg. 2 yr olds, 4 yr olds, 6 yr olds and 8 yr olds- studied at same time, take toys from all and see how they react.
take the same group back every 2 years (for example) . this is very expensive, participants want something out of it. have to start with HUGE sample number to get a comparitively small sample
statistical procedures that organize and summarize research data. describe it, but don't explain it.
make inferences about how meaningful a studys results are. statistical significance vs. practical significance.