The upper respiratory system includes the ____ and ____.
nose & pharynx
The lower respiratory system includes the ____, ____, and ____.
trachea, bronchi, & lungs
____ has internal and external portions.
____ (____) has two openings on the undersurface of the external nose.
external nares (nostrils)
What are the 3 functions of the interior structures of the nose?
1. filter, mositen, and warm incoming air
2. receive olfactory stimuli
3. modify speech sounds through hollow resonating chambers
____ two posterior openings through which the internal nose communicates with the pharynx.
Ducts from all of the sinuses also communicate with the ____.
____ is the space inside the internal nose and is divided into seperate halves by the ____.
nasal cavity; nasal septum
The anterior portion of the nasal cavity is the ____.
____ subdivides the nasal cavity into 3 meatus (passages).
superior, middle, inferior conchae
Air entering the ____ and ____ is warmed by the blood in nearby ____.
conches & meatuses; capillaries
____ (_____) consists of 3 portions and is the passage for food and air.
____ is also known as the voice box.
____ is a short passageway (for air only) that connects the laryngopharynx with the trachea.
The wall of the larynx is composed of ____ cartilage pieces.
What are the 9 cartilage pieces of the larynx.
1. thyroid cartilage
2. laryngeal prominence ?
3. cricoid cartilage
4 & 5. arytenoid cartilage x2
6 & 7. cuneiform cartilage x2
7 & 8. corniculate cartilage x2
____ also known as the Adam's Apple.
____ forms anterior wall of the larynx giving it a triangular shape and is larger in males due to sex hormones.
____ is a ligament that connects the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone.
____ is the inferior wall of the larynx.
____ is the landmark for an emergency airway known as a tracheostomy.
____ are located at the posterior and superior border of cricoid cartilage.
____ attach to the vocal cords and intrinsic pharyngeal muscles providing support for the intrinsic muscles which move the vocal cords.
____ are horned-shaped elastic cartilages located at the apex of each arytenoid cartilage.
____ are cone-shaped elastic cartilages which provide support to vocal folds and lateral aspects of the epiglottis.
____ are attached to the upper border of the thyroid cartilage and supports a flap know as the ____.
epiglottic cartilage; epiglottis
____ is a flap that seals the glottis during swallowing.
____ is the opening between the vocal cords.
When air is moved against the vocal cords, they ____ and ____; the ____ the force of air - the greater the ____.
vibrate & create sound; greater; sound
____ is controlled by tension on the vocal cords; the ____ the tension - the higher the ____; the ____ the tension - the lower the ____.
pitch; higher; pitch; lower; pitch
Men have ____ and ____ vocal cords than women, which vibrate _____ creating a lower pitch.
thicker & longer; slower
____ is also know a the "windpipe".
____ is approximately 5 in. long and is located anterior to the esophagus; it extends from the larynx to the 5th thoracic vertebra (thoracic cavity) where it _____ into left and right ____.
trachea; bifurcates; primary bronchi
Within the wall of the trachea are about 16-20 ____ rings of hyaline cartilage which form the basic structure; the open porion of these rings is ____ ,next to the esophagus; these rings allow for the ____ of the esophagus during swallowing and prevents inward ____ during inspiration.
C-shaped; posterior; expansion; collapse
____ muscle bridges the gaps between the open ends of the C-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage within the wall of the tracheal wall.
The ____ have a superior pair known as ____ and an inferior pair known as ____.
vocal cords; false vocal cords; true vocal cords
____ is the internal ridge, of the trachea, at the point of bifurcation.
____ is very sensitive mucous membrane that easily triggers the cough reflex.
____ (respiratory) is very thin and allows for rapid exchanges of respiratory gases.
There are about ____ million alveoli in each lung yeilding a total surface area between 70-80 meters square meters - about (nearly 1/2) the size of a tennis court for the exchange of gases.
The bronchial tree branches into what structures (list in proper order)?
trachea > primary bronchi > secondary bronchi > tertiary bronchi > bronchioles > terminal bronchioles > respiratory bronchioles > alveolar bronchioles and alveoli
As branching of the bronchial tree becomes more extensive ____ major structural changes occur.
One of the three structural changes that occurs as branching of the bronchial tree becomes more extensive is that epithelium grandually changes from ____ in the bronchi to _____ in the terminal bronchioles and in the respiratory bronchioles, the epithelium lining changes from ____ to _____ (diffusion).
pseudostratified ciliated columnar; nonciliated simple cuboidal; simple cuboidal; simple squamous
One of the three structural changes that occurs as branching of the bronchial tree becomes more extensive is that in the primary bronchi there are ____ rings of cartilage which are gradually replaced by ____ of cartilage which in turn disappear in the ____.
incomplete; plates; distal bronchioles
One of the three structural changes that occurs as branching of the bronchial tree becomes more extensive is that as cartilage ____ - smooth muscle ____; smooth muscle can ____ and ____ by chemical and neural stimuli.
decreases; increases; dilate & constrict
In the thoracic cavity the lungs are seperated by the contents of the ____.
____ cover and protect each lung.
____ is the superficial layer that lines the wall of the thoracic cavity.
____ deep layer that directly covers the lungs.
____ space between the parietal layers and viseral layers that contains lubricating (serous) fluid which reduces friction during breathing.
____ is the broad inferior section of the lung.
____ is the narrow superior section of the lung.
____ is the surface of the lung lying against the ribs.
____ is the medial surface of the lungs.
____ is on the mediastinal surface of the lungs.
____ is the region through which bronchi, blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and exit.
____ on the left lung.
____ is a concave area where the heart lies ( the right lung is ____, ____, and ____ than the left lung due to the space occupied by the ____).
cardiac notch; thicker, broader, & shorter; liver
____ is found in each lung.
____ is a fissure that extends inferiorly and anteriorly dividing the lungs into superior and inferior lobes.
the left lung has an ____ fissure only whereas the right lung has both an ____ and ____ fissure.
oblique; oblique and horizontal
The right lung had both oblique and horizontal fissures which divide the lung into ____, ____, and ____ lobes.
superior, middle, & inferior
_____ states that at a constant temperature, the volume of gas varies inversely with pressure.
____ is normal quiet breathing.
____ is temporary cessation (stop) of breathing.
____ is painful and labored breathing.
____ is rapid breathing (shallow).
____ is chest breathing; contraction of external muscles.
____ is deep abnormal breathing.
____ involves numerous accessory muscles.
____ is an inwardly directed force.
____ causes alveoli to become smaller.
In order for the lungs to expand during inspiration ____ must be overcome.
____ is a lipoprotein detergent-like chemical that reduces surface tension of alveolar fluid thereby reducing the tendency to collapse (lack of ____ causes respiratory distress syndrome in newborns).
____ is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall can be expanded; a ____ in alveolar pressure produces a ____ in lung volume.
compliance; small increase;large increase
____ is partial or complete collapse of a lung.
____ is any condition that narrows or obstructs airways (COPD, asthma, emphysema) and decreases compliance.
____ is an apparatus used to measure the volume of air exchanged during breathing and rate of ventilation.
____ is a graphic recording of respiration
On a spirogram, ____ is displayed as an upward deflection.
On a spirogram, ____ is displayed as a downward deflection.
____ is one inspiration and one expiration.
____ is the volume of one breath during normal quiet breathing.
tidal volume (TV)
____ of the tidal volume actually reaches the respiratory bronchioles.
____ of the tidal volume remains in the air spaces of the nose, pharynx, bronchi, and bronchioles; this is know as ____.
30%; anatomic dead airspace
____ accounts for nonfunctional alveoli; this must be considered dead space as well; no blood flows through the adjacent ____, therefore there is no exchange of ____ in the blood.
physiologic dead space; pulmonary vessels; oxygen
In the normal individual the anatomical and physiologic dead spaces are nearly ____, but in diseased populations the physiologic dead space can be as much as ____ times the anatomic dead space amounting to as much as ____ liters.
equal; 10; 1-2
____ is calculated by multiplying tidal volume by normal breathing rate.
minute volume of respiration
____ is the volume of air per minute that reaches the alveoli.
alveolar ventilation rate
____ is the additional inhailed air by taking a deep breath.
inspiratory reserve volume
____ is the volume of air that can be exhaled forcibly after normal inhailation.
expiratory reserve volume
____ is the volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs in 1 second with maximal effort following a maximal inhailation.
forced expiratory reserve volume
____ is the air remaining in the lungs after forceful expiration and helps prevent the collapse of the lungs.
____ is the sum of IRV and TV.
____ is the sum of IRV and TV and ERV.
____ is the sum of ERV and RV.
functional residual volume
____ is the sum of IRV and TV and ERV and RV.
total lung capacity
____ states that the volume of gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature (assuming pressure is constant); as gases enter the warmer lungs, the gases expand increasing lung volume.
____ states that each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all of the other gases were not there; the partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases.
In _____ and ____ respiration O2 and CO2 diffuse from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressures.
internal & external
____ is the exchange of gases between the alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries.
external respiration (pulmonary respiration)
External (pulmonary) respiration results in the conversion of ____ blood (more CO2 than O2) coming from the heart to ____ blood (more O2 than CO2) returing to the hear
External (pumonary) repiration depends upon ____ differences, a large surface area for ____, s small diffusion distance across the respiratory membrane (alveolar-capillary), and minute volume of respiration.
partial pressure; gas exchange
____ is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells (by diffusion).
internal (tissue) respiration
____ results in the conversion of ____ blood to ____ blood.
internal (tissue) repiration; oxygenated; deoxygenated
Internal (tissue) respiration at rest allows only about ____% of the available ____ in oxygenated blood actually enters the tissue cells, but exercise ____ this percentage.
25; oxygen; raises
In each 100 ml of ____ blood, 1.5% of the oxygen is dissolved in ____ and 98.5% is carried with ____ inside the red blood cells as ____.
oxygenated; plasma; hemoglobin (Hb); oxyhemoglobin
Hemoglobin consists of a protein portion called ____ and a pigment portion called ____ which contains 4 atoms of ____, each capable of combining with a molecule of ____.
globin; heme; iron; oxygen
The ____ is the most important factor that determine how much ____ combines with hemoglobin: the ____ the pressure, the more oxygen will combine with hemoglobin, until the available molecules are ____.
pressure of oxygen (pO2); oxygen; greater; saturated
____ graphically illustrates the relationship between the percent saturation of hemoglobin and pressure of oxygen (pO2).
oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve
Numerous factors affect the association of oxygen and hemoglobin such as ____, ____, and ____.
acidity (pH), pCO2, & temperature
In an ____ enviroment, oxygen (O2) ____ more readily from hemoglobin; (low blood pH can result from ____); this will shift the curve to the ____.
acid; splits; high pCO2; right
Decreased ____ (and elevated pH) shifts the curve to the ____.
Within limits, as temperature ____, so does that amount of ____ released from hemoglobin. ____ cells require more oxygen, and active cells, such contracting muscle cells, ____ more acid and heat, stimulating the ____ to release its oxygen.
increases; oxygen; active; liberate; oxyhemoglobin
Carbon monooxide (CO) poisoning occurs because ____ binds more strongly to ____ than ____ does, decreasing the oxygen carry capacity of the blood, leading to ____.
CO; hemoglobin; oxygen (O2); hypoxia
____ is oxygen deficiency and the tissue level.
The respiratory center of the brain consists of the ____ area, ____ group ____ group, and the ____ group formerly known as the ____ area and ____ area.
medullary rhythmicity; dorsal respiratory; ventral repiratory; pontine respiratory; pneumotaxic; apneustic
____ controls the basic rhythm of respiration; normal resting - ____ second inspiration and ____ second expiration (rate will vary from __-__ breaths per minute).
medullary rhythmicity area; 2; 3; 12-20
____ stimulates muscles of inspiration (diaphragm).
dorsal respiratory group
____ stimulates intercostals and abdominals; during forceful breathing some of these neurons increase inspiratory efforts and others stimulate expiratory efforts.
ventral respiratory group
____ sends impulses that limit inspiration and facilitate expiration preventing overexpansion of the lungs.
____ send impulses to the inspiratory area that activate it and prolong inspiration, inhibiting expiration.
Chemoreceptors located in the walls of various arteries respond to changes in ____ concentration or ____; pCO2 normally equals ____ Hg in the arteries; a slight increase in pCO2 results in ____.
H+ (hydrogen ion); pCO2 (pressure of carbon dioxide): 40 mm; hypercapnia
____ is when the inspiratory areas to become highly active which increases the rate and depth of breathing (hyperventilation).
____ is when the inspiratory areas become more inactive decrease the rate and depth (slow and shallow) of breathing (hypoventilation).
pCO2 levels determine the ____ and ____ of breathing.
rate & depth