Respiratory System

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Anatomy and Physiology II Chapter 19

The upper respiratory system includes the ____ and ____.

nose & pharynx

The lower respiratory system includes the ____, ____, and ____.

trachea, bronchi, & lungs

____ has internal and external portions.

nose

____ (____) has two openings on the undersurface of the external nose.

external nares (nostrils)

What are the 3 functions of the interior structures of the nose?

1. filter, mositen, and warm incoming air
2. receive olfactory stimuli
3. modify speech sounds through hollow resonating chambers

____ two posterior openings through which the internal nose communicates with the pharynx.

internal nares

Ducts from all of the sinuses also communicate with the ____.

internal nares

____ is the space inside the internal nose and is divided into seperate halves by the ____.

nasal cavity; nasal septum

The anterior portion of the nasal cavity is the ____.

vestibule

____ subdivides the nasal cavity into 3 meatus (passages).

superior, middle, inferior conchae

Air entering the ____ and ____ is warmed by the blood in nearby ____.

conches & meatuses; capillaries

____ (_____) consists of 3 portions and is the passage for food and air.

pharynx (throat)

____ is also known as the voice box.

larynx

____ is a short passageway (for air only) that connects the laryngopharynx with the trachea.

larynx

The wall of the larynx is composed of ____ cartilage pieces.

9

What are the 9 cartilage pieces of the larynx.

1. thyroid cartilage
2. laryngeal prominence ?
3. cricoid cartilage
4 & 5. arytenoid cartilage x2
6 & 7. cuneiform cartilage x2
7 & 8. corniculate cartilage x2
9. epiglottis

____ also known as the Adam's Apple.

thyroid cartilage

____ forms anterior wall of the larynx giving it a triangular shape and is larger in males due to sex hormones.

thyroid cartilage

____ is a ligament that connects the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone.

thyrohyoid membrane

____ is the inferior wall of the larynx.

cricoid cartilage

____ is the landmark for an emergency airway known as a tracheostomy.

cricoid cartilage

____ are located at the posterior and superior border of cricoid cartilage.

arytenoid cartilages

____ attach to the vocal cords and intrinsic pharyngeal muscles providing support for the intrinsic muscles which move the vocal cords.

arytenoid cartilages

____ are horned-shaped elastic cartilages located at the apex of each arytenoid cartilage.

corniculate cartilages

____ are cone-shaped elastic cartilages which provide support to vocal folds and lateral aspects of the epiglottis.

cuneiform cartilage

____ are attached to the upper border of the thyroid cartilage and supports a flap know as the ____.

epiglottic cartilage; epiglottis

____ is a flap that seals the glottis during swallowing.

epiglottis

____ is the opening between the vocal cords.

glottis

When air is moved against the vocal cords, they ____ and ____; the ____ the force of air - the greater the ____.

vibrate & create sound; greater; sound

____ is controlled by tension on the vocal cords; the ____ the tension - the higher the ____; the ____ the tension - the lower the ____.

pitch; higher; pitch; lower; pitch

Men have ____ and ____ vocal cords than women, which vibrate _____ creating a lower pitch.

thicker & longer; slower

____ is also know a the "windpipe".

trachea

____ is approximately 5 in. long and is located anterior to the esophagus; it extends from the larynx to the 5th thoracic vertebra (thoracic cavity) where it _____ into left and right ____.

trachea; bifurcates; primary bronchi

Within the wall of the trachea are about 16-20 ____ rings of hyaline cartilage which form the basic structure; the open porion of these rings is ____ ,next to the esophagus; these rings allow for the ____ of the esophagus during swallowing and prevents inward ____ during inspiration.

C-shaped; posterior; expansion; collapse

____ muscle bridges the gaps between the open ends of the C-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage within the wall of the tracheal wall.

trachealis

The ____ have a superior pair known as ____ and an inferior pair known as ____.

vocal cords; false vocal cords; true vocal cords

____ is the internal ridge, of the trachea, at the point of bifurcation.

carnia

____ is very sensitive mucous membrane that easily triggers the cough reflex.

carnia

____ (respiratory) is very thin and allows for rapid exchanges of respiratory gases.

alveolar-capillary membrane

There are about ____ million alveoli in each lung yeilding a total surface area between 70-80 meters square meters - about (nearly 1/2) the size of a tennis court for the exchange of gases.

300

The bronchial tree branches into what structures (list in proper order)?

trachea > primary bronchi > secondary bronchi > tertiary bronchi > bronchioles > terminal bronchioles > respiratory bronchioles > alveolar bronchioles and alveoli

As branching of the bronchial tree becomes more extensive ____ major structural changes occur.

3

One of the three structural changes that occurs as branching of the bronchial tree becomes more extensive is that epithelium grandually changes from ____ in the bronchi to _____ in the terminal bronchioles and in the respiratory bronchioles, the epithelium lining changes from ____ to _____ (diffusion).

pseudostratified ciliated columnar; nonciliated simple cuboidal; simple cuboidal; simple squamous

One of the three structural changes that occurs as branching of the bronchial tree becomes more extensive is that in the primary bronchi there are ____ rings of cartilage which are gradually replaced by ____ of cartilage which in turn disappear in the ____.

incomplete; plates; distal bronchioles

One of the three structural changes that occurs as branching of the bronchial tree becomes more extensive is that as cartilage ____ - smooth muscle ____; smooth muscle can ____ and ____ by chemical and neural stimuli.

decreases; increases; dilate & constrict

In the thoracic cavity the lungs are seperated by the contents of the ____.

mediastinum

____ cover and protect each lung.

pleural membranes

____ is the superficial layer that lines the wall of the thoracic cavity.

parietal layer

____ deep layer that directly covers the lungs.

visceral layer

____ space between the parietal layers and viseral layers that contains lubricating (serous) fluid which reduces friction during breathing.

pleural cavity

____ is the broad inferior section of the lung.

base

____ is the narrow superior section of the lung.

apex

____ is the surface of the lung lying against the ribs.

costal surface

____ is the medial surface of the lungs.

mediastinal surface

____ is on the mediastinal surface of the lungs.

hilus

____ is the region through which bronchi, blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and exit.

hilus

____ on the left lung.

cardiac notch

____ is a concave area where the heart lies ( the right lung is ____, ____, and ____ than the left lung due to the space occupied by the ____).

cardiac notch; thicker, broader, & shorter; liver

____ is found in each lung.

oblique fissure

____ is a fissure that extends inferiorly and anteriorly dividing the lungs into superior and inferior lobes.

oblique fissure

the left lung has an ____ fissure only whereas the right lung has both an ____ and ____ fissure.

oblique; oblique and horizontal

The right lung had both oblique and horizontal fissures which divide the lung into ____, ____, and ____ lobes.

superior, middle, & inferior

_____ states that at a constant temperature, the volume of gas varies inversely with pressure.

boyle's law

____ is normal quiet breathing.

eupnea

____ is temporary cessation (stop) of breathing.

apnea

____ is painful and labored breathing.

dyspnea

____ is rapid breathing (shallow).

tachypnea

____ is chest breathing; contraction of external muscles.

costal breathing

____ is deep abnormal breathing.

diaphragmatic breathing

____ involves numerous accessory muscles.

labored breathing

____ is an inwardly directed force.

surface tension

____ causes alveoli to become smaller.

surface tension

In order for the lungs to expand during inspiration ____ must be overcome.

surface tension

____ is a lipoprotein detergent-like chemical that reduces surface tension of alveolar fluid thereby reducing the tendency to collapse (lack of ____ causes respiratory distress syndrome in newborns).

surfactant

____ is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall can be expanded; a ____ in alveolar pressure produces a ____ in lung volume.

compliance; small increase;large increase

____ is partial or complete collapse of a lung.

atelectasis

____ is any condition that narrows or obstructs airways (COPD, asthma, emphysema) and decreases compliance.

airway resistance

____ is an apparatus used to measure the volume of air exchanged during breathing and rate of ventilation.

spirometer

____ is a graphic recording of respiration

spirogram

On a spirogram, ____ is displayed as an upward deflection.

inspiration

On a spirogram, ____ is displayed as a downward deflection.

expiration

____ is one inspiration and one expiration.

respiration

____ is the volume of one breath during normal quiet breathing.

tidal volume (TV)

____ of the tidal volume actually reaches the respiratory bronchioles.

70%

____ of the tidal volume remains in the air spaces of the nose, pharynx, bronchi, and bronchioles; this is know as ____.

30%; anatomic dead airspace

____ accounts for nonfunctional alveoli; this must be considered dead space as well; no blood flows through the adjacent ____, therefore there is no exchange of ____ in the blood.

physiologic dead space; pulmonary vessels; oxygen

In the normal individual the anatomical and physiologic dead spaces are nearly ____, but in diseased populations the physiologic dead space can be as much as ____ times the anatomic dead space amounting to as much as ____ liters.

equal; 10; 1-2

____ is calculated by multiplying tidal volume by normal breathing rate.

minute volume of respiration

____ is the volume of air per minute that reaches the alveoli.

alveolar ventilation rate

____ is the additional inhailed air by taking a deep breath.

inspiratory reserve volume

____ is the volume of air that can be exhaled forcibly after normal inhailation.

expiratory reserve volume

____ is the volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs in 1 second with maximal effort following a maximal inhailation.

forced expiratory reserve volume

____ is the air remaining in the lungs after forceful expiration and helps prevent the collapse of the lungs.

residual volume

____ is the sum of IRV and TV.

inspiratory capacity

____ is the sum of IRV and TV and ERV.

vital capacity

____ is the sum of ERV and RV.

functional residual volume

____ is the sum of IRV and TV and ERV and RV.

total lung capacity

____ states that the volume of gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature (assuming pressure is constant); as gases enter the warmer lungs, the gases expand increasing lung volume.

Charle's Law

____ states that each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all of the other gases were not there; the partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases.

Dalton's Law

In _____ and ____ respiration O2 and CO2 diffuse from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressures.

internal & external

____ is the exchange of gases between the alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries.

external respiration (pulmonary respiration)

External (pulmonary) respiration results in the conversion of ____ blood (more CO2 than O2) coming from the heart to ____ blood (more O2 than CO2) returing to the hear

deoxygenated; oxygenated

External (pumonary) repiration depends upon ____ differences, a large surface area for ____, s small diffusion distance across the respiratory membrane (alveolar-capillary), and minute volume of respiration.

partial pressure; gas exchange

____ is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells (by diffusion).

internal (tissue) respiration

____ results in the conversion of ____ blood to ____ blood.

internal (tissue) repiration; oxygenated; deoxygenated

Internal (tissue) respiration at rest allows only about ____% of the available ____ in oxygenated blood actually enters the tissue cells, but exercise ____ this percentage.

25; oxygen; raises

In each 100 ml of ____ blood, 1.5% of the oxygen is dissolved in ____ and 98.5% is carried with ____ inside the red blood cells as ____.

oxygenated; plasma; hemoglobin (Hb); oxyhemoglobin

Hemoglobin consists of a protein portion called ____ and a pigment portion called ____ which contains 4 atoms of ____, each capable of combining with a molecule of ____.

globin; heme; iron; oxygen

The ____ is the most important factor that determine how much ____ combines with hemoglobin: the ____ the pressure, the more oxygen will combine with hemoglobin, until the available molecules are ____.

pressure of oxygen (pO2); oxygen; greater; saturated

____ graphically illustrates the relationship between the percent saturation of hemoglobin and pressure of oxygen (pO2).

oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve

Numerous factors affect the association of oxygen and hemoglobin such as ____, ____, and ____.

acidity (pH), pCO2, & temperature

In an ____ enviroment, oxygen (O2) ____ more readily from hemoglobin; (low blood pH can result from ____); this will shift the curve to the ____.

acid; splits; high pCO2; right

Decreased ____ (and elevated pH) shifts the curve to the ____.

pCO2; left

Within limits, as temperature ____, so does that amount of ____ released from hemoglobin. ____ cells require more oxygen, and active cells, such contracting muscle cells, ____ more acid and heat, stimulating the ____ to release its oxygen.

increases; oxygen; active; liberate; oxyhemoglobin

Carbon monooxide (CO) poisoning occurs because ____ binds more strongly to ____ than ____ does, decreasing the oxygen carry capacity of the blood, leading to ____.

CO; hemoglobin; oxygen (O2); hypoxia

____ is oxygen deficiency and the tissue level.

hypoxia

The respiratory center of the brain consists of the ____ area, ____ group ____ group, and the ____ group formerly known as the ____ area and ____ area.

medullary rhythmicity; dorsal respiratory; ventral repiratory; pontine respiratory; pneumotaxic; apneustic

____ controls the basic rhythm of respiration; normal resting - ____ second inspiration and ____ second expiration (rate will vary from __-__ breaths per minute).

medullary rhythmicity area; 2; 3; 12-20

____ stimulates muscles of inspiration (diaphragm).

dorsal respiratory group

____ stimulates intercostals and abdominals; during forceful breathing some of these neurons increase inspiratory efforts and others stimulate expiratory efforts.

ventral respiratory group

____ sends impulses that limit inspiration and facilitate expiration preventing overexpansion of the lungs.

pneumotaxic area

____ send impulses to the inspiratory area that activate it and prolong inspiration, inhibiting expiration.

apneustic area

Chemoreceptors located in the walls of various arteries respond to changes in ____ concentration or ____; pCO2 normally equals ____ Hg in the arteries; a slight increase in pCO2 results in ____.

H+ (hydrogen ion); pCO2 (pressure of carbon dioxide): 40 mm; hypercapnia

____ is when the inspiratory areas to become highly active which increases the rate and depth of breathing (hyperventilation).

hypercapnia

____ is when the inspiratory areas become more inactive decrease the rate and depth (slow and shallow) of breathing (hypoventilation).

hypocapnia

pCO2 levels determine the ____ and ____ of breathing.

rate & depth

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