Embalming Pathology Unit 10

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Embalming Pathology Unit 10

Acne

Inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin. Associated with seborrhea (increased secretion of sebaceous glands). Characterized by papules, comedomes, pustules. Cysts and nodules may developed, scarring common.

Comedomes (comedos)

Small lesion of acne; whiteheads and blackheads.

Whiteheads

Closed comedo; papule from which the contents are not easily expressed, may become inflamed.

Blackheads

Open comedo; papule that is rarely inflamed. Oily contents are easily expressed.

Abscess

Localized collection of pus in any part of the body that results from invasion of pyogenic bacterium causing inflammation. Inflammation may result in disintegration or displacement of tissue. Untreated, may invade surrounding tissues.

Syphilis

Infectious chronic STD; may involve any organ or tissue. Disease may exist asymptomatic for years. Transmitted sexually or in utero, can accompany gonorrhea. Three stages.

Stage 1: Primary Syphilis

Painless hard chancre. Usually found on prepuce (foreskin of penis) or vulva.

Stage 2: Secondary Syphilis

Approximately 6 weeks after primary lesion, widespread lesions may appear on skin and mucous membranes. may have headache, malaise, fever, may be asymptomatic.

Stage 3: Tertiary Syphilis

As long as 30 years after primary stage. Heart and blood vessel damage. Central nervous system damage. Formation of gumma (tumor-like lesion) on skin and organs. Dementia may result.

Seborrheic dermatitis

Disease of sebaceous glands. Overproduction of sebum. Excess sebum causes these glands to clog. Results in acne and causes yellow or gray scale or crust. Elevated patches with red borders on the body.

Melanocytic Nevus

Pigmented nevus (mole) containing melanocytes (melanin forming cells).

Malignant melanoma

Serious skin cancer; highly malignant and metastasizes early. Most common in fair-skinned people. Risk increased with sun exposure. May develop from mole that undergoes transformation. Px depends on depth, spread, etc.

Basal cell carcinoma

Central depression may ulcerate and/or bleed. Develops on face of fair skin persons who are exposed to sun but do not tan.

Squamous cell carcinoma

More serious than basal; rapidly infiltrates underlying tissues. Metastasizes through lymph channels. Develops on squamous epithelium. Common in persons exposed to the sun. Lesions are crusted nodules that ulcerate and bleed.

Vitiligo

Melanin disappears from patches of normally pigmented skin. White patches; surrounded by areas of normal pigmentation. Autoimmune disease - destruction of melanocytes.

Impetigo

Highly infectious; seen most frequently in children. Face and hands most often affected. Oozing vesicles and pustules which rupture and form crusts. Autoinfection occurs from exudate.

Eczema

Non-contagious inflammatory skin disorder. Caused by various agents; allergens, chemicals, irritation. May have a variety of lesions (papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crust) in combination with itching and burning.

Hives (Urticaria)

Vascular reaction of skin; characterized by general eruption of papules. Allergic response to foods, stress, external irritants. Severe itching.

Poison Ivy

Itch rash. Blisters. Caused by Rhus toxicodendron, a climbing vine.

Herpes Simplex

Viral infection, usually spread by contact with lesion, recurrence common. Fever blisters around mouth, lips, lesions around genitals. Painful eruptions, duration about 10 days. No cure.

Genital Warts

Viral infection; human papilloma. Wartlike growths on genital and anal areas. Sexually transmitted.

Tonsillitis

Inflammation of the tonsils. May become enlarged and red. Difficult, painful swelling. Self-limiting disease. May be chronic.

Lymphangitis

Inflammation of lymph channels or vessels. Chills, fever, swelling, and pain. General red flush with raised border if infection is in deeper layers of skin; called blood poisoning.

Splenomegaly

Enlargement of the spleen; elongated reddish organ posterior to interior stomach. Produces RBC's, removes old ones. May be associated with hemolytic disease. Hemorrhage, anemia, and cirrhosis of the liber.

Lymphedema

Edmea due to obstruction of lymphatic vessels or venous obstruction; impairment of uptake of lymph by lymphatic vessels. Stagnation causes infection and consequent inflammatory response.

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Malignant disorder. Characterized by painless enlargement of lymphoid tissue (cervical), splenomegaly. Curable malignancy 60-90%. Long periods of remission, cause unknown. Anorexia, weight loss, pruritis (itching), anemia, low-grade fever, night sweats, leukyocytosis. More men than women. 15-35 years of age.

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Lymphosarcoma; several diseased of lymphatic origin that are not Hodkin's lymphoma. Burkitt's Lymphoma. Mononucleosis.

Burkitt's Lymphoma

causes malignant bone destroying lesions of jaw or abdominal mass in children. Responds well to chemotherapy. caused by Epstein-Barr virus.

Infectious Mononucleosis

Acute herpes virus infection. Group of solid malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue. Transmitted by droplet. Fever, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, bruising.

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