the rights of people to be treated without unreasonable or unconstitutional differences
classifying people on the basis of their race orethnicity
Strict Scrutiny and Semi-strict scrutiny
Supreme Court test to see if a law denies equal protection because it does not serve a compelling state interest and is not narrowly tailored to achieve that goal
Reasonable/ rationality standard
used by courts if determination based on gender was valid
Jim Crow laws
state laws formerly pervasive throughout the South requiring public facilities and accommodations to be segregated by race, ruled unconstitutional
"equal protection of the laws"
right guaranteed by14th Amendment and the due-process clause of the 5th Amendment emphasizing that laws must provide equivalent "protection" to all people
"separate but equal"
established in 1896, doctrine that blacks could constitutionally be kept in separate but equal facilities
"with all deliberate speed"
Supreme Court decisionof Brown case, states should end segregation with all deliberate speed
Segregation and Desegregation
separating blacks and whites vs. not forcing the separation but not forcing the integration
uniting or bringing together blacks and whites
de jure segregation
racial segregation that is required by law
de facto segregation
racial segregation that occurs in schools, result of patterns of residential settlement
opposing a law one considers unjust by peacefully disobeying it and accepting the resultant punishment
Civil Rights Act of 1957
primarily a voting rights bill, first civil rights legislation enacted in the United States since Reconstruction, proposed by Congress to President Dwight Eisenhower
Equal Pay Act of 1963
amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act, requires equal pay for men and women doing equal work
Civil Rights Act of 1964
made racial, religious,and sex discrimination by employers illegal, gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights (including desegregation of schools and public places)
Voting Rights Act of 1965
invalidated the use of any test or device to deny blacks from voting, encouraged greater social equality and decreased the wealth and education gap
Open Housing Act of 1968 (Title VIII)
prevents people selling or renting homes from using certain forms of discrimination
Higher Education Act of 1972 ( Title IX)
prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender in educational program using federal funding
Education of All Handicapped Children of 1975
established the right of all children to a free and appropriate education regardless of handicapping condition
Voting Rights Act of 1982
requires states to create congressional districts with minority majorities in order to increase minority representation in the House of Representatives
Civil Rights Act of 1988
increased potency of Title IX (Higher Education Act) by allowing the government to cut off all funding to schools that violate the law
American with Disabilities Act of 1990
requires employers and public facilities to make"reasonable accommodations" for people with disabilities
unwanted sexual attention that makes the victim feel uncomfortable or threatened
Equal Employment Opportunities Commission
enforces laws to prevent unfair treatment on the job due to sex, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, or age
Equal Rights Amendment
Constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified, would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
Right to privacy
right to a private personal life free from the intrusion of government
programs designed to increase minority participation in some institution (businesses, schools, labor unions, or government agencies) by taking positive steps to appoint more minority-group members
using race or sex to give preferential treatment to some people
"Equality of opportunity"
giving people an equal chance to succeed
"Equality of result"
making certain that people achieve the same result
rule requiring certain numbers of jobs promotions for members of certain groups vs. options you can set that are based on your work habits
helping disadvantaged people catch up,usually by giving them extra education, training, or services
demonstration of necessity that the government must provide to justify interference with fundamental rights (central element of strict scrutiny standard)
"compelling government interest"
is a concept in law that allows the government to regulate a given matter.
is the legal principle that a law be written to specifically fulfill only its intended goals.
issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill