is taken by the fed'l gov't every ten years to count the population to determine the # of each states' congressional districts.
a reallotment of congressional seats in the United States on the basis of census results (congressional redistricting)
changing voting district boundaries so as to give your own party an unfair advantage
The geographically defined group of people on whose behalf a representative acts in the House of Representatives. Each state is divided into congressional districts of equal population, with larger states having more districts and representatives than small sates. Congressional districts are reapportioned every ten years according to new census data.
House of Reps
435 seats, elections every 2 years, at least 25 yrs old, may initiate tax laws & spending bills
100 seats, elections for 1/3 of it occur every 2 yrs, a term lasts 6 yrs, ratify all treaties signed by the prez, must approve prez'ial nominations to fed'l courts & ambassadorships to foreign countries, must approve the prez's cabinet
Smith v. Allwright
Court case, to deny blacks from voting in primaries violates the 15th amendment
Wesberry v. Sanders
Court case ordering House districts to be as equal as possible--one man one vote
Buckley v. Valeo
Court case; giving $ to a political campaign is free speech. Stringent fed'l regulations on fund-raising & election spending were thrown our
Shaw v. Reno and Miller v. Johnson
Race can't be the sole/main factor in redrawing legislative district boundaries. S. v. R.--district is not compact & discriminates via racial gerrymandering.
Bush v. Gore
Florida recount violated the 14th amendment's equal protection clause.
voting rights act of 1965
suspended literacy tests, empowered fed'l officials to register voters, prohibited states from changing voting procedures without fed'l permission, encouraged states to increase minority representation in congress.
House Ways and Means Committee
Committee of House that oversees taxing and spending legislation
bills of attainder
laws that find people guilty of a crime & sentence them to prison sans a trial. (congress can't pass these)
ex post facto laws
laws that punish people for actions that occured before the behavior was made criminal. (Congress can't pass these)
The committees and subcommittees review the work of the fed' agencies (a check on executive pwr): investigate charges of corruption & waste, hold hearings w/ experts and citizens discussing the gov't's probs and suggest solutions. Committee chairs: have the pwr to subpoena witnesses to appear & testify
House Rules Committee
is responsible for determining how long a bill will be debated and whether to allow an open or closed rule for amending bill. Most powerful committee of the House
a tactic used to delay a vote on a bill and tie up the work of the Senate, usu. by a Senator making a speech that continues for hours, though it can also happen w/out actual speeches, the Senate Majority Leader may require an actual traditional filibuster if they so choose.
the only way to end a filibuster, requires the votes of 60 members (difficult when both parties are equally represented, plus that would set a precedent)
a legislative appropriation designed to ingratiate legislators with their constituents "bringing home the bacon"
provisions within legislation that appropriate $ to a specific project.
a temporary joint committee created to reconcile any differences between the two houses' versions of a bill
are permanent, specialized committees. There are 20 of these committees in the House; 17 in the Senate. Ex: House Ways and Means Committee, the Senate Judiciary Committee, the Senate Armed Services Committee.
Members from both House and Senate, these committees are usu. used for communicating to the public or for investigations, they usu. don't send bills to the floor for votes.
temporary committees organized in each house for some special purpose, usu. to carry out an investigation para write special legislation. Ex: the House Watergate Committee, the Senate Select Committee on Unfair Campaign Practices
when , if a congressional session ends within the 10 days, the prez. doesn't sign a bill in the 10 days after he receives it.
when the prez. vetos a portion of a bill--it was ruled unconstitutional in Clinton v. New York City
to set a congressional bill aside in committee without considering it so that it will die.
the parliamentary mechanism to force a bill our of committee for a floor vote
Speaker of the House
chosen by the majority party, is pwrful b/c can direct floor debate and influences committee assignments and the Rules Committee, and controls which bills go to which committees (Congressional leadership)
keeps party members inline and helps determine party policy & the party's legislative agenda. In the Senate, it is they who have the real pwr.
keeps the minority party members in line and helps determine the minority party's legislative agenda
help their respective party leaders keep the members loyal to the party's legislative agenda, coordinate members of each party, help garner support for proposed legislation (congressional leadership)
president pro tempore
is the presiding officer when the V.P. is absent during Senate sessions, is largely an honorary position and usu. given to the most senior member of the majority party of the Senate.
eliminated the spoils system of patronage in selection for gov't jobs & set up an exam-based merit system for qualified candidates.
Federal Election Campaign Acts
these laws created the Fed'l Election Commission (FEC) and required disclosures of contributions and expenditures and limitations on contributions and presidential election expenditures.
War Powers Act
limited prez's pwr to use troops overseas in hostilities, put a time limit on use and gave Congress final pwr to withdraw troops
Budget and Impoundment Control Act
estb. congressional budget committees, and gave congress the pwr to prevent the prez from refusing to fund congressional initiatives
Espionage Act, Sedition Act
severely curtailed the civil liberties of Americans during wartime, increased the pwr of the fed'l gov't in cntrling public activity
Civil Rights Act 1964
banned discrimination in public places on basis of race, color, nat'l origin, or religion. Prohibited employment discrimination based on gender
Tittle 9 Education Act
prohibited gender discrimination in federally funded edu. programs
Americans with Disabilities Act
protected cicil liberties of disabled Americans and mandated "reasonable accommodations" to public facility use
The Motor Voter Act
this law allowed people to register to vote when applying for driver's licenses
The Patriot Act
this law grants broad police authority to the fed'l, state, & local gov't to interdict, prosecute, and convict suspected terrorists.
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act McCain-Feingold Bill
this law banned soft money contributions to political parties