a gobular protien that forms microfilaments
anchors microtubles just beneath the cell surface
technique in which cells are broken into pieces and the different cell parts are separated.
strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
large, fluid-filled organelle; store water, enzymes, metabolic, wastes, and other materials
one of two small cylindrical cell organelles composes of 9 triplet microtubules
small region of cytoplasm adjacent to the nucleus
plastid in photosynthetic organisms containing chlorophyll and other pigments
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
A short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.
A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom.
Expels fluid from the cell and helps to maintain homeostasis
the infoldings of th mitochondrial inner membrane
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
A circular flow of cytoplasm, involving myosin and actin filaments, that speeds the distribution of materials within cells.
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
The semifluid portion of the cytoplasm.
A general cell junction, used primarily for adhesion.
Contractile proteins - Cilia and flagella
a microscope that is similar in purpose to a light microscope but achieves much greater resolving power by using a parallel beam of electrons to illuminate the object instead of a beam of light
The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.
a cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another
A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Examples of organisms with these cells are protists, plants, fungi, and animals.
The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded, consisting of protein and polysaccharides.
a glycoprotein that helps animal cells attach to the extracellular matrix.
a lash-like appendage used for locomotion (e.g., in sperm cells and some bacteria and protozoa)
small cavity in the cytoplasm of protists that temporarily stores food
A type of intercellular junction in animals that allows the passage of materials between cells
a conjugated protein having a carbohydrate component
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
a stack of thylakoids
A receptor protein built into the plasma membrane that interconnects the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton
Middle component of cytoskeleton, made of fibrous proteins (keratin family) supercoiled into thick cables: bears tension, anchors nucleus and other organelles, forms the nuclear lamina. Is a more permanent fixture, used to enforce the shapes of cells where shape is important (neurons)
microscope that uses a beam of light passing through one or more lenses to magnify an object
membrane-bound sac containing digestive enzymes that can break down proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides
A solid rod of actin protein in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells, making up part of the cytoskeleton and acting alone or with myosin to cause cell contraction.
hollow tube of protein that maintains cell shape and can also serve as a "track" along which organelles are moved
A thin layer rich in pectins that lays in between the primary cell walls of plant cells
The compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the Krebs cycle.
in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP
A protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction and makes up the majority of muscle fiber
double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus.
Area in prokaryotic cells in which DNA is concentrated, though not bounded by a membrane
The organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled, located in the nucleus
transmission electron microscope
An electron microscope used to study the internal structure of thin sections of cells
A tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell.
A machine that spins test tubes at the fastest speeds to separate cell organelles and particles of different densities.