Chapter 6 Vocabulary

49 terms by emilita811

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actin

A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells.

basal body

A eukaryotic cell organelle consisting of a 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubule triplets; may organize the microtubule assembly of a cilium or flagellum; structurally identical to a centriole.

cell wall

A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists.In plant cells, the wall is formed of cellulose fibers embedded in a polysaccharide-protein matrix. The primary cell wall is thin and flexible, whereas the secondary cell wall is stronger and more rigid and is the primary constituent of wood.

cell fractionation

The disruption of a cell and separation of its organelles by centrifugation.

central vacuole

A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development.

centriole

A structure in an animal cell composed of cylinders of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9 + 0 pattern. An animal cell usually has a pair of centrioles involved in cell division.

centrosome

Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during cell division; the microtubule-organizing center.

chloroplast

An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.

chromatin

The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.

chromosome

A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.

cilium

A short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.

collagen

A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom.

contractile vacuole

A membranous sac that helps move excess water out of the cell.

crista

An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.

cytoplasm

The entire contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus, and bounded by the plasma membrane.

cytoplasmic streaming

A circular flow of cytoplasm, involving myosin and actin filaments, that speeds the distribution of materials within cells.

cytoskeleton

A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical and transport functions.

cytosol

The semifluid portion of the cytoplasm.

desmosome

A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that functions as an anchor.

dynein

A large contractile protein forming the side-arms of microtubule doublets in cilia and flagella.

electron microscope

microscope that focuses an electron beam through a specimen, resulting in resolving power a thousandfold greater than that of a light microscope.

endomembrane system

The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.

endoplasmic reticulum

An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions

eukaryotic cell

A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles, present in protists, plants, fungi, and animals

extracellular matrix

The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded, consisting of protein and polysaccharides.

fibronectin

A glycoprotein that helps cells attach to the extracellular matrix.

flagellum

A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion. The flagella of prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ in both structure and function.

food vacuole

A membranous sac formed by phagocytosis.

gap junction

A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current between cells.

glycoprotein

A protein covalently attached to a carbohydrate.

Golgi apparatus

An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.

granum

An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.

integrin

A receptor protein built into the plasma membrane that interconnects the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.

intermediate filament

A component of the cytoskeleton that includes all filaments intermediate in size between microtubules and microfilaments.

light microscope

An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible light to magnify images of specimens.

lysosome

A membrane-enclosed sac of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.

microfilament

A solid rod of actin protein in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells, making up part of the cytoskeleton and acting alone or with myosin to cause cell contraction.

microtubule

A hollow rod of tubulin protein in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells and in cilia, flagella, and the cytoskeleton.

middle lamella

A thin layer of adhesive extracellular material, primarily pectins, found between the primary walls of adjacent young plant cells.

mitochondrial matrix

The compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the Krebs cycle.

mitochondrion

An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration.

myosin

A type of protein filament that interacts with actin filaments to cause cell contraction.

nuclear envelope

The membrane in eukaryotes that encloses the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm.

nuclear lamina

A netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus.

nucleoid

A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.

nucleolus

A specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomes and active in the synthesis of ribosomes.

transmission electron microscope

A microscope that passes an electron beam through very thin sections; primarily used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells.

transport vesicle

A tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell.

ultracentrifuge

a high speed centrifuge used to determine the relative molecular masses of large molecules in high polymers and proteins

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