first major U.S. discovery of silver ore; mining camps thrived
Central Pacific Railroad
part of the first Transcontinental Railroad in North America (California to Utah)
Union Pacific Railroad
is the largest and oldest operating railroad network in the United States
marks the point where the transcontinental railroad system was completed
cowboys drove herds of cattle from Texas overland to railheads on the northern Plains
American farmer who patented barbed wire
Sand Creek massacre
Colorado Territory militia attacked a Cheyenne/Arapaho village during the Indian wars
Battle of the Little Bighorn
(Custer's Last Stand) battle between Lakota and Northern Cheyenne, led by Sitting Bull, against the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the US Army; Indians won
Native Americans who live in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States
Leader of the Nez Perces of Oregon. Had been forcibly transported to Oklahoma after the Battle of Little Bighorn.
Helen Hunt Jackson
wrote Ramona, a novel about the ill treatment of Native Americans in southern CA
the last armed conflict between the Great Sioux Nation and the United States of America and of the Indian Wars; 7th Cavalry opening fire indiscriminately from all sides
1883 Civil Rights Cases
ruled that Congress lacked the authority under Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local governments
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation even in public accommodations (particularly railroads), under the doctrine of "separate but equal"
inventor of the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and practical electric light bulb
John D. Rockefeller
founded the Standard Oil Company and aggressively ran it; created the trust
predominant American integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company
United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
and built a steel empire
J. Pierpont Morgan
merged Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric; merged the Carnegie Steel Company and other steel/iron businesses to form the US Steel Corporation
wrote Ragged Dick
applying the idea of natural selection to the human race
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
first Federal statute to limit cartels and monopolies
National Labor Union
created by William H. Sylvis; endorsed the 8-hr-day movement, end of convict labor, establishment of a federal dept. of labor, banking reform, higher wages, and restricted immigration.
Knights of Labor
one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories
he led the Knights of Labor, a skilled and unskilled union, wanted equal pay for equal work, an 8hr work day and to end child labor
American Federation of Labor
a union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.
founded the American Federation of Labor
a city in which much or all businesses are owned by a single company
"Patrons of Husbandry"; organization for American farmers that encourages farm families to band together for their common economic and political well-being
Long vs. Short haul
railroad rates over short or long distances; rate discrimination
Munn v. Illinois
in this supreme court case, it allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads (growth of federal government regulation)
ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission)
had the power to investigate railroad activities; created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland
would allow easier credit for agriculture, thus breaking the power of the centralized eastern banks over farmers in the rural South and West
William Jennings Bryan
democratic party nominee, lost to McKinley. Advocated trust-busting, free silver. He was a peace advocate, a prohibitionist, an opponent of Darwinism, and one of the most prominent leaders of populism.
The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale.
process of promoting and hiring government employees based on their ability to perform a job
was an American political party that supported paper money
Pendleton Civil Service Act
established the United States Civil Service Commission; ended the spoils system
Grand Army of the Republic
organized advocacy group composed of veterans of the Union Army who had served in the American Civil War
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
This measure required the government to pay for its monthly silver purchases with treasury certificates redeemable for either silver or gold, and many certificate holders chose to convert them to gold.
Raised the tax on foreign products to a peacetime high of over 48 percent
boss tweed (William Marcy Tweed)
led Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine
movement that applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially justice, inequality, liquor, crime, racial tensions, slums, bad hygiene, child labor, weak labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war
This welfare organization came to the US from England in 1880 and sought to provide food, shelter, and employment to the urban poor while preaching temperance and morality.
provided housing and recreation for country boys who had migrated to the city
Immigrants from Southern and Eastern European countries and Asia arriving in the LATE 1800s
Chinese Exclusion Act
It closed the door on Chinese Immigration in 1882
Frederick Winslow Taylor
American mechanical engineer, who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. He is known as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants
Novelist, wrote Theory of the Leisure Class, these works undermined the reputation of the industrial elite and stimulated pressures for tougher regulation of business.
Argument put forward by Booker T. Washington that African-Americans should not focus on civil rights or social equality but concentrate on economic self-improvement
discontent among farmers resulting from changes in their economic position following the Civil War. They sought help from states and the federal government thus abandoning the doctrine of laissez-faire
a factory or place of business that employs only union members
labor unions whose members were skilled workers in a particular craft- for example, carpenters masons or cigar makers. The American Federation of Labor was composed of individual unions
Dawes Act (1887)
changed the reservation system by granting 160 acres and US Citizenship to native American heads of families to give up their tribal allegiance
The name applied to the 1870s and 1880s during which national politics was characterized by party rivalries, the spoils system, and unregulated business competition. the term comes from the title of a novel written by Mark Twain
Jim Crow Laws
laws that enforced segregation by discriminating against and suppressing black people
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.
A vote gathering organization of politicians who loyally support a party boss and get the votes in their neighborhoods to support their party's candidates by fulfilling needs and providing services to constituents
stalwarts and half-breeds
factions in the republican party that emerged by 1880. one side supported the spoils system while the other claimed to represent the idea of civil service reform
a form of business organizaiton in which a group of corporations in the same industry gave their stock in the individual companies to a board of trustees in return for stock certificats that earned dividents. this effectively eliminated competition by givnig control to the board. the earliest example is the Standard Oil Company
argued that the frontier was the key factor in the development of American democracy and institiutions
Crime of 73
through the coinage act of 1873, the US ended the minting of silver dollars and placed the country on the gold standard. this was attacked by those who supported an inflationary montetary policy, particularly farmers and believed in the unlimited coinage of silver
Rum, Romanism and Rebellion
an insult made agianst NY Irish-Americans by a republican clergyman in the 1884 election. Blaine's faliure to repudiate this statement lost him NY and contributed to his defeat by Grover Cleveland.
In Chicago, home to about 80,000 Knights and a few hundred anarchists that advocated a violent overthrow of the American government, tensions had been building, and on May 4, 1886, Chicago police were advancing on a meeting that had been called to protest brutalities by authorities when a dynamite bomb was thrown, killing or injuring several dozen people.
Started by enraged workers who were part of George Pullman's "model town", it began when Pullman fired three workers on a committee. Pullman refused to negotiate and troops were brought in to ensure that trains would continue to run. When orders for Pullman cars slacked off, Pullman cut wages, but did not cut rents or store prices.
Railroad strike between workers and railroad corporation. Ended by local and state militia. It started the idea of strikes.
It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions.
Community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance in the area
Silver vs. Gold
The issue of whether to use gold or silver-backed currency that divided the country
a political party founded 1891 that called for free coinage of silver and paper money, national income tax, direct election of senators, regulation of railroads, and other government reforms to help farmers
1893 - Group of unemployed workers who marched from Ohio to Washington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for government relief. Government arrested the leaders and broke up the march in Washington.
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
Patrons of Husbandry
A group organized in 1867, the leader of which was Oliver H. Kelley. It was better known as the Grange. It was a group with colorful appeal and many passwords for secrecy. The Grange was a group of farmers that worked for improvement for the farmers.
Robert M. La Follette
progressive wisconsin govenor who won passge of the "Wisconsin Idea"- a series of Progressive measures that included a direct primary law, tax reform, and regulation of railroad rates.
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things he had seen.
Muckraker during the Progressive Era; wrote "The Octopus" (1901) that described the power of the railroads over Western farmers
progressive constitutional amendments
Sixteenth (Income Tax), Seventeenth (Senators), and Nineteenth (Female Vote) Amendments. Social, political and economic reform that came as an American response to problems caused by industrialization, urbanization, and immigration.
head of the U.S. Forest Servic under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
Northern Securities Case
Roosevelt's legal attack on the Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad holding company owned by James Hill and J.P. Morgan. In the end, the company was "trust-busted" and paved the way for future trust-busts of bad trusts.
This 1906 law used the Interstate Commerce Commission to set maximum railroad rates and to examine railroads' financial records.
Meat Inspection Act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption, brought on by Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle"
Pure Food and Drug Act
Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. Was supposed to lower tariff rates but the senator of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs. This split the Repulican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff).
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Bull Moose Party
nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912
Pushed through Congress by Woodrow Wilson, this 1913 tariff reduced average tariff duties by almost 15% and established a graduated income tax
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
clarified and extended the 1890 sherman antitrust act by clearly stating what could and couldnt do, help government regulate monopolies
Federal Reserve Act
Sparked by the Panic of 1893 and 1907, the 1913 act created the Federal Reserve System, which issued paper money controlled by government banks.
Federal trade Commission
Established to preserve competition by preventing unfair business practices and investigates complaints against companies
a popular American minister in the late 1800s who linked Anglo-Saxonism to Christian missionary ideas. Wanted to spread christianity.
Was the Secretary of State in 1899; dispatched the Open Door Notes to keep the countries that had spheres of influence in China from taking over China and closing the doors on trade between China and the U.S.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
American Naval officer and historian. He is most famous for his book "The Influence of Sea Power on History" which defined Naval strategy. His philosophies had a major influence on the Navies of many nations resulting in a igniting of naval races between countries.
De Lome Letter
Spanish Ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901.
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Treaty of Portsmouth
1905 treaty between Russia and Japan ending the Russo-Japanese War
Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
Required Cuba to never sign a treaty with a foreign power that impaired its indpenedence, never to build up an excessive public debt, to permit the US to invervene in Cuba's affairs, to allow the US to maintain the naval base Guantanamo Bay.
Addition to the Monroe Doctrine asserting America's right to intervene in Latin American affairs
Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923). Led raids across the U.S.-Mexican border when Venustiano Carranza took control of the governement.
John J. Pershing
this general pursued Villa into Mexico. This expeditionary force tried to capture Villa.
American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI
Germany said to the US that it would not sink merchant or passenger ships without giving due warning in 1916.
A secret German message to Mexico supporting the Mexican government in regaining Arizona and Texas if the Mexicans declared war on the United States, a factor propelling the United States into World War I in April 1917. it was intercepted by the british.
Unrestricted submarine warfare
A policy that the Germans announced on January 1917 which stated that their submarines would sink any ship in the British waters
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty between Russia and Germany that would end Russia's involvement in WWI in 1917
Selective Service Act
Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft
War Industries Board
Coordinated military purchasing; ensured production efficiency; and provided weapons, equipment, and supplies to the military.
economic advisor to United States Presidents (1870-1965), He headed the War Industries Board, which controlled the industrial sector. It allocated raw materials, established production priorities, and induced competing companies to standardize and coordinate their products and processes to save scarce commodities.
Was an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I. Over just 28 months, from April 13, 1917 to August 21, 1919, it used every media available to create enthusiasm for the war effort and enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercut America's war aims.
a series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I. (Most major was The League of Nations)
Paris Peace Conference
the event at which the Allies met to discuss the fate of Europe, the former Ottoman Empire, and various colonies around the world after the end of WWI (the Central Powers were not allowed to participate in negotiations)
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of, 28 June 1919, the peace settlement imposed on Germany afterWORLD WAR I, drawn up at the Paris Peace Conference and signed near the French capital at Versailles.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Led a group of senators during Woodrow Wilson's presidency known as the "reservationists" during the 1919 debate over the League of Nations.
Big Bill Haywood
a founding member and leader of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and a member of the Executive Committee of the Socialist Party of America.
IWW (industrial workers of the world aka wobblies)
International Union headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 10,000 members. The organization contends that all workers should be united within a single union as a class and that the wage system should be abolished.
A Progressive-style lawyer called "the people's lawyer," and fought for public causes. When nominated to the Supreme Court by Woodrow Wilson in 1916, his appointment drew outrage as his "radical" behavior and anti-Semitism as he was the first Jew on the Supreme Court.
Carrie Chapman Catt
(1859-1947) A suffragette who was president of the National American Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
A leader of NAWSA and later the Congressional Union who wanted to use aggressive, militant tactics to persuade Congress and the public, as she had seen the English do for their suffrage. She originally took over the national NAWSA campaign to go through Congress instead of states.
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
headed the WCTU from 1879 to 1898. she made it a powerful source for temperance and for the rights of women
Danish immigrant, photographer and jouranlist. First to use flash. and Author of "How the other half lives". Displayed ethnic stereotyping in writings.
A. Mitchell Palmer
was Attorney General of the United States from 1919 to 1921. He was nicknamed The Fighting Quaker.
A 1920 operation in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
A major feminist prophet during the late 19th and early 20th century. She published "Women and Economics" which called on women to abandon their dependent status and contribute more to the community through the economy. She created centralized nurseries and kitchens to help get women into the work force.
person who seeks to overturn the established government; advocate of abolishing authority
President Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad
the movement aimed at equal rights for women
a poor densely populated city district occupied by a minority ethnic group linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions
These were court cases dealing with islands/countries that had been recently annexed and demanded the rights of a citizen. These Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag, thus denying the rights of a citizen to Puerto Ricans and Filipinos.
Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations
a national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice
Woodrow Wilson's domestic policy that, promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters.
a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
Fear after WW1 about spread of communism, especially after the Espionage Act, Sabotage Act, and Sedition Act.
initiative, referendum, recall
These were three changes intended to increase the individual voter's influence in government.
- gives a person the power to propose laws,
-states that certain laws passed by the state legislature do not take effect unless they are approved by a majority of the citizens,
-strengthens the control of voters over elected officials.
Members of Senate ready to ratify the Treaty of Versailles with some modifications
Sacco and Vanzetti
Trial of two Italian immigrant anarchists for murder with little evidence
the new manifest destiny
the late-nineteenth believed it was the destiny of the US to expand its continental border.
the big four
refers to the allied leaders at the Paris Peace Conference: US, France, Great Britain, and Italy.
Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution