A group of poker-playing, men that were friends of President Warren Harding. Harding appointed them to offices and they used their power to gain money for themselves. They were involved in scandals that ruined Harding's reputation even though he wasn't involved.
a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
American financier appointed Secretary of the Treasury in 1921 and served under Coolidge and Hoover governments. The government and he reduced the WW I debt by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially
Budget and Accounting Act
this act created the Bureau of the Budget in the treasury department and enhanced presidential control over the budgetary process in the executive branch and it became the Office of Management and Budget in 1970
Bureau of the Budget
Created in 1921; its primary task is to prepare the Annual Budget for presentation every January. It also controls the administration of the budget; improving it and encouraging government efficiency.
The American plan to loan money to Germany, who would pay their reparations to France and Britain, who would pay back their debt to America, which created a win-win for everyone, and made they people happy and thought that peace was possible
this was created in 1921 to provide hospitals and services to disabled veterans
provided bonus money for World War 1 veterans. Each veteran would receive $1000
charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliation
National Origins Act of 1924
in 1924 and 1929, congress imposed even more restrictions on immigrants. in addition, the US completely prohibited immigration from Asia.
United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)
wrote "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," "The Waste Land" and "The Hollow Men;" British WWI poet, playwright, and literary critic
F. Scott Fitzgerald
a novelist and chronicler of the jazz age. his wife, zelda and he were the "couple" of the decade but hit bottom during the depression. his noval THE GREAT GATSBY is considered a masterpiece about a gangster's pursuit of an unattainable rich girl.
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
United States novelist who satirized middle-class America in his novel Main Street (1885-1951)
One of the most popular writers of the 1920's who wrote "A Farewell to Arms"
American writer of experimental novels, poetry, essays, operas, and plays. In Paris during the 1920s she was a central member of a group of American expatriates that included Ernest Hemingway. Her works include Three Lives (1908), Tender Buttons (1914), and The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1933).
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
This man was well known for making the Harlem Renaissance famous because of his poems.
founder of United Negro Improvement Association ;; promotes resettlement of American blacks to own "African homeland", sponsored stores & businesses to keep $ in blacks' pockets ;; inspiration for Nation of Islam
A plan to rehabilitate American agriculture by raising the domestic prices of farm products *Effects of the protective tariff and burdens of debt and taxation had created a serious agricultural depression and grew steadily worse
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Congress set up $2 billion. It made loans to major economic institutions such as banks, insurance companies and railroads.
during the Great Depression, Franklin D. Roosevelt closed the banks from March 6 to March 10 to keep depositors from bankrupting the banking system by withdrawing all their money.
A New York social worker who headed the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Civil Works Administration. He helped grant over 3 billion dollars to the states wages for work projects, and granted thousands of jobs for jobless Americans.
Louisianna Senator who opposed FDR's New Deal and came up with a , "Share the Wealth" wants to give $5k to all families ,was later assasinated
A Catholic priest from Michigan who was critical of FDR on his radio show. His radio show morphed into being severly against Jews during WWII and he was eventually kicked off the air, however before his fascist rants, he was wildly popular among those who opposed FDR's New Deal.
American physician and social reformer whose plan for a government-sponsored old-age pension was a precursor of the Social Security Act of 1935.
United States writer noted for his novels about agricultural workers (1902-1968), wrote "the grapes of wrath"
Indian Reorganization Act
Government legislation that allowed the Indians a form of self-government and thus willingly shrank the authority of the U.S. government. It provided the Indians direct ownership of their land, credit, a constitution, and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs.
Social Security Act
guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman appointed to the U.S. Cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend, Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition.
CIO (Congress of Industrial Organization)
A federation of labor union for all unskilled workers. It provided a national labor union for unskilled workers, unlike the AFL, which limited itself to skilled workers.
Ran against FDR in the 1936 election. He was weak on the radio and weaker in personal compaigning, and while he criticized FDR's spending, he also favored enough of FDR's New Deal to be ridiculed by the Democrats as an unsure idiot.
period from March to June 1933 when Congress passed major legislation submitted by Roosevelt to deal with the Depression
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
Roosevelt proposed increasing the number of justices. If a justice did not retire at age 70, the president could appoint an additional justice up to a maximum of 6.
John Maynard Keynes' idea of government tax cuts and increase in spending in order to stimlutate investment and consumption
a contraction of economic activity resulting in a decline of prices
shanty-towns that housed many who had lost everything. Shelters were built of old boxes and other discards.
Term coined by Gertrude Stein to describe American expatriate wirters of the 1920s; including T.S. Eliot, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, and Stein herself.
the state of the economy declines
in this era of freewheeling popular culture, People defied prohibition and indulged in new styles of dancing and dressing, rejected many traditional moral standards.
Sick Chicken Case
In Schechter Poultry v. U. S., the Supreme court struck down the National Industrial Recovery Act as unconstitutional. The decision encouraged Roosevelt to consider ways to change the makeup of the court. this case was nicknamed this.
a grant paid by a government to an enterprise that benefits the public
a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.
"Return to Normalcy"
Campaign theme of Warren Harding during the election of 1920; reflectedthe conservative mood of the country after the constant appeals to idealism that characterized both the Progressive Era and Wilson's fight over the League of Nations.
"Share the Wealth"
Program of Huey Long that proposed the redistribution of income of the rich to give every American a guaranteed annual income of $2,000 to $3,000, old-age pensions, money for a
college education, and veterans benefits.
Washington Disarmament Conference
An international conference on the limitation of naval fleet construction begins in Washington. Under the leadership of the American Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes the representatives of the USA, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan pledge not to exceed the designated sizes of their respective naval fleets
London Naval Conference
this resulted in agreements between the major powers on navy vessel numbers, armaments and the rules of engagement in the inter-war period.
the code name for the Allied invasion of Europe at Normandy on June 6, 1944; also known as D-Day
December, 1943 - A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace.
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met here. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held here, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
J. Robert Oppenheimer
leader of Manhattan project
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman. the bombs were dropped at these two cities
Executive Order 9066
FDR announced this order and in result, 112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes & businesses, 600K more renounced citizenship; demonstrated fear of Japanese invasion
Japanese internment camps in California
A. Philip Randolph
Black leader, who threatens a march to end discrimination in the work place; Roosevelt gives in with companies that get federal grants.
War Production Board
During WWII, FDR established this to allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers
Office of Price Administration
WWII Office that installs price controls on essential items to prevent inflation
a multinational treaty that prohibited the use of war as "an instrument of national policy." banned war
us gave loans to germany to pay france who could pay back the us because germans were in economic deposition
1931- state department issues a new policy repudiating the right of the U.S. to intervene in Latin America under the Roosevelt Corollary--> "Good Neighbor policy"
(FDR) 1932, , 1932, Hoover's Secretary of State said the US would not recognize territorial changes resulting from Japan's invasion of Manchuria
Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin D. Roosevelt policy in which the U.S. pledged that the U.S. would no longer intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American countries. This reversed Teddy Roosevelt's Big Stick Policy.
In 1934 this was formed by the Senator of North Dakota to hold hearings to investigate the country's involvement on WW1; this committee documented the huge profits that arms factories had made during the war
series of laws that provided Americans could not ship weapons, loan money, travel on belligerent ships, extend credit, or deliver goods to any belligerent countries; they were high tide of isolationism, and all were repealed between 1939 to 1941.
(FDR) Dec. 12, 1937, this was when Japan bombed a American gunboat that was trying to help Americans overseas. This greatly strained U.S-Japanese relations and pushed the U.S further away from isolationism even though Japan apologized.
"Quarantine the Aggressor"
The Speech was given by U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on October 5, 1937, in Chicago, calling for an international "____________" as an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality and isolationism that was prevalent at the time.
Neutrality Act of 1939
European democracies might buy American war materials on a "cash-and-carry basis"; improved American moral and economic position
allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII and to work for peace after the war
America First Committee
A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.
Jan. 14-23, 1943 - FDR and Chruchill met in Morocco to settle the future strategy of the Allies following the success of the North African campaign. They decided to launch an attack on Italy through Sicily before initiating an invasion into France over the English Channel. Also announced that the Allies would accept nothing less than Germany's unconditional surrender to end the war.
Office of War Information
established by the government to promote patriotism and help keep Americans united behind the war effort.
War Labor Board
this acted as a supreme court for labor cases. Did more harm than good when it tried to limit wages, which led to strikes.
Popular choice for Republican nominee in election of 1940. Critized New Deal, but largely agreed with Roosevelt on preparedness and giving aid to Britain. Lost to Roosevelt.
He was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. As a leader of the liberal faction of the Republican party he fought the conservative faction led by Senator Robert A. Taft, and played a major role in nominating Dwight D. Eisenhower for the presidency in 1952.
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939
Wartime agreement between the United States and Mexico to import farm workers to meet a perceived manpower shortage; the agreement was in effect from 1941 to 1947.
Cash and Carry
Key provisions of the Neutrality act of 1939 that allowed the United States to sell arms and other contraband as long as nations paid cash and shipped the goods on their own vessels.
Military strategy adopted by the United States that required concentrating on the defeat of Germany while maintaining a holding action against Japan in the Pacific.
Plan for the extermination of the Jewish population in Nazi-occupied Europe; a total of six million Jews were killed in death camps such as those established at Auschwitz, Belzec, Majdanek, Sobibor, and Treblinka.
Detaining enemy aliens during wartime; term specifically applied to Japanese aliens and Japanese-Americans living on the West Coast (and elsewhere in the U. S.) Who were sent to relocation centers (Manzanar, Topaz, etc.) In 1942 allegedly because of possible disloyalty.
Literally "divine wind," Japanese term for fighter pilots who crashed their planes into American warships during the latter stages of World War 2.
Merchants of Death
Term used by Senator Gerald P. Nye to describe the munitions-makers whom he blamed for forcing the United States into World War 1. Nye headed a committee that investigated the industry from 1934 to 1936.
Rosie the Riveter
Term that came to symbolize all women who worked in defense plants and other industries during World War 2.
British and American invasion of France to relieve pressure on the Soviet Union in the east; Stalin had insisted on this from June 1941, but the invasion of Normandy (Operation Overlord) did not take place until June 1944.
Sphere of Influence
An area in which a nation seeks to be dominant by securing preferential treatment of a political, economic, and/or social nature.
Plots of land set aside by Americans during the World Wars for the cultivation of vegetables so as to limit the purchase of produce in stores.
AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Administration)
set up in the Dept of Agriculture; supervised by Sect Henry A. Wallace; eliminate overproduction of crops; bring prices back to the average prices like 1909 to 1914; had authority to buy surplus crops and to make payments to producers to restrict production
CAA (Civil Aeronautics Authority)
urged airplane industry to improve and maintain safety standards; set up issuing and enforcing air traffic rules, licensing pilots, certificating aircraft, establishing airways, and operating and maintaining aids to air navigation
CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps )
created by the U.S. Congress for the conservation of the natural resources of the country—timber, soil, and water—and to provide employment and training for unemployed young men as long as the depression lasted
CWA (Civil Works Administration )
provided work relief for a large number of men- construction of public buildings; roads; teaching
FCC (Federal Communications Commission )
regulates interstante and international communication by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable
FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corp )
protect depositors $ if banks fail; monitor banks to ensure fair practices, create pool of $ to pay insurance claims
FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration)
alleviating household unemployment by creating newunskilled jobs in local and state government; construction, projects for professionals (e.g., writers, artists, actors, and musicians), and production of consumer goods
FHA (Federal Housing Admin)
provides mortgage insurance on loans to homes and hospitals; created as part of the National Housing Act of 1934; improve housing standards and conditions, provide an adequate home financing system through insurance of mortgage loans, and to stabilize the mortgage market
FSA (Farm Security Admin )
stressed "rural rehabilitation" efforts to improve the lifestyle of sharecroppers, tenants, and very poor landowning farmers, and a program to purchase sub marginal land owned by poor farmers and resettle them in group farms on land more suitable for efficient farming
NLRB (National Labor Relations Board)
conducts elections for labor union representation and investigates and remedies unfair labor practice; group of 5 members that make decisions; app by pres
NRA (National Recovery Admin)
eliminate cut-throat competition by bringing industry, labor and government together to create codes of fair practices and set prices; help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours, as well as minimum prices at which products could be sold
NYA (National Youth Administration)
oversee work programs and edu grants to ppl age 16 to 25; helped poverty striken youth (provide jobs, assistance); finance for college, work-study, job training
PWA (Public Works Admin)
It built large-scale public works such as dams, bridges, hospitals and schools.
REA (Rural Electrification Admin)
affordable electricity would improve the standard of living and the economic competitiveness of the family farm; created to bring electricity to rural areas like the Tennessee Valley; many opposed
SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission )
required to register w/ gov. and disclose assets (watchdog of stock market); limit amount of credit banks give out; investigations of wrongdoings in stock market
TVA (TN Valley Authority)
gave electricity to rural areas; built waterways, used fertilizer- stimulate econ growth; gave jobs; brought comfort; incr. communication/ tech in 90% farmers in 7 S. states
WPA (Works Progress Admin)
largest and most ambitious New Deal agency, employing millions to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads, and operated large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects. It fed children and redistributed food, clothing, and housing