etiology of substance related disorders
the study of the cause of substance related disorders, involving genetic factors, use of drugs as a means to self-medicate or cover up other issues.
sociocultural view of etiology
stressful socio-economic conditions or cultural differences that affect attitudes towards taking drugs
behavioral view of etiology
suggests the influence of both positive and negative reinforcement as causal factors for continued drug use.
pleasure pathway in the brain
mesolimbic dopamine system
located in the mesolimbic system stimulated by certain drugs
biological view of etiology
states that there is a difference between children of alcohol-dependent parents and those of non-dependent parents with respect to genetic predisopsition to drugs and alcohol
Alcohol flush syndrome
causes an individual to feel sick after consuming alcohol because of a lack of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase.
breaks down acetaldehyde, a by-product of alcohol .
Categories of substance use
non-use, moderate and non-problematic use, heavy and non-problematic use, heavy use with moderate life problems, heavy use with serious life problems, dependency with life and health problems
The treatment and recovery continuum of care
identification, assessment, stabilization, rehabilitation, relapse prevention and substance substitution (if necessary)
can be through self, court order, a condition of probation or parole, or intervention. screening process helps determine the likelihood of a problem with drugs or alcohol
the collection of data from the individual and corroborative sources to determine the extent of the individual's problem and their strengths, weaknesses, and needs.
includes the need for detoxification at an appropriate medical facility if needed.
depends upon assessment and diagnosis and can range from providing education, an intensive outpatient program to an inpatient residential program.
relapse prevention program
a process whereby indentification of individualized triggers and a plan to confront those triggers is developed
a legal drug is substituted for an illegal one to assist the client in making positive life changes.
Stages of family response to drug and alcohol abuse
denial, attempts to eliminate the problem, disorganization and chaos, reorganization in spite of the problem, efforts to escape, family reorganization.
Dysfunctional family roles
family hero, mascot, scapegoat, lost child
this occurs when swelling of the pancreatic duct causes a backup of digestive juices causing irritation and swelling of the pancreas.
acute fatty liver
this occurs when fat deposits build up in the normal liver cells and can develop in anyone who has been drinking heavily even for a short period of time.
occurs after a heavy or extended bout of alcohol use and can occur in non-alcohol dependent persons. An inflammation of the liver where metabolism is disrupted, jaundice, yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes.
permanent, widespread destruction of liver cells, which are replaced with nonfunctioning scar tissue. irreversible and fatal if alcohol continues to be used.
insufficient function or number of red blood cells.
alcoholic heart muscle disease or AHMD
a serious condition in which the heart does not pump the amount of blood needed to meet the demands of the body.
Beriberi heart disease
a reduction of vitamin B-1 that over time cause a normal heart to fail to keep up with an abnormally high metabolic need of the body.
an overall decline of intellect
associated with Vitamin B1 deficiency and may be corrected nutritionally
apparently irreversible condition characterized by the individual's inability to learn new information and remember recent events.
combined condition of Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome - symptoms include nystagmus (abnormal eye movement), problems with gait, memory, confabulation, low Bi, low blood pressure, tremor. Often called wet brain.
an amnesia like state associated with alcohol dependence or a heavy intake of alcohol.
a temporary change caused by a significant amount of drug entering the body affecting one's emotional, cognitive and/or psychomotor functioning.
a condition where, after using drugs, an individual finds it difficult or impossible to control use. Dependence usually involves a physical and or psychological need for the drug in order to function normally and it usually involves tolerance and withdrawal.
a state of functional adaptation to a drug in which the presence of a foreign chemical becomes normal and necessary, and the absence of the drug would present an abnormal state.
when the individual has a strong desire to continue to use the drug for emotional reasons and is related to the rewarding effects of the drug. There are no physical withdrawal symptoms with the discontinuation of use.
this is evident when a person who is physically dependent on one drug can lessen or prevent withdrawal symptoms by using other drugs from the same or similar classification.
an altered physiological state that develops after repeated drug use when the body becomes accustomed and adapts to the presence of the drug and functions normally. Evidence of this is when the drug has less of an effect when using the same dose, or when a larger dose must be used to get the desired effect.
when the nerve cells become less sensitive to the effects of the drug over time and repeated use
when the liver adapts to the presence of a drug over time and may produce more of the enzyme needed to break down the drug.
when after a period of time and repeated drug use, the users are able to modify their behavior in hopes that others will not notice they are intoxicated
when the tolerance to a drug develops and the individual may also show an increased tolerance to the effects of another drug in the same class.
when the individual can become more sensitive to the drug's effects rather than less sensitive. Also known as the kindling effect.
negative symptoms that result from the abrupt discontinuation of the drug. The presence of withdrawal symptoms reveals physical dependence. The withdrawal symptoms of a particular drug usually involve the opposite reaction on the body than the drug's effects.
the amount of drug that is taken at any particular time.
the length of time a drug remains in the body and continues to affect the user.
the smallest amount of a drug that can produce a detectable response
the greatest response from a drug no matter the dose given or taken
the amount of a drug necessary to get the desired effect in about 50 percent of those who use the drug
the dose of a drug that results in death
the dose determined to be safe for use and get the desired effect; determined by dividing the lethal dose by the effective dose
the amount of a drug necessary to produce the desired effect.
drug interaction classifications
addititive, synergistic, antagonistic
two or more drugs are used at the same time and the results are equal to the sum of the actions of the drugs used.
when two or more drugs are used at the same time, and the results are greater that the sum of the actions of the drugs used.
occur when two or more drugs are used at the same time, and the results are less than the sum of the actions of the drugs or the drugs cancel out the effects of each other.
Routes of administration
how a person takes substances into the body
taken by mouth and swallowed into the stomach.
using a needle and syringe
skin-popping, injecting in the fatty layer just under the external skin.
injected into the large muscles
injected directly into a vein
substances can be inhaled into the lungs by smoking or huffing
drugs can be inhaled into the nose and absorbed through the mucous membranes.
the drug is absorbed through the skin from a patch.
the drug is absorbed through the mucous membranes in the mouth.
Drugs are administered by inserting them into he body through the rectum and are absorbed through the intestinal lining.
GABA, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine.
relates to inhibitory factors and slows communication.
associated with arousal reactions and moods.
associated with feeling of pleasure.
associated with feelings of anxiety, depression and aggressiveness.
associated with arousal reactions or inhibitory factors.
Pleasure/reward center of the brain
made up of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens and other structures of the brain.
These store in the fatty areas of the body and can have longer lasting traces in the body that water-soluble drugs do not.
generally related to the drug's speed of action and how long the effects last.
Contolled Substance Act
Law which places drugs in 1 of 5 schedule categories, depending on their abuse potential, potential for dependence/addiction, and currently accepted medical use.
Any drug included here has a high level of abuse/dependence. Also, there is no accepted medical use. Include are heroin, LSD and marijuana.
Drugs in this category are essentially similar to Schedule I, but with an accepted medical use. There are restrictions on manufacture and distribution via production quotas and import/export controls. Non-refillable meds. Include methadone, morphine, methamphetamine and cocaine.
Drugs in this category are considered to be at moderate or low risk for physical dependence, and with current reasons for medical use. Includes anabolic steroids, most barbituates and ketamine.
Drugs in this category are considered to be at low risk for physical dependence but moderate risk for psychological dependence and have a currently accepted medical use. Includes Xanax, Barbital and chloral hydrate.
Drugs in this category are considered to be at low risk for either physical dependence or psychological dependence, and with current indications for medical use. Includes medical mixtures using small amounts of opium or codeine.
These drugs are central nervous system depressants. Include but are not limited to: alcohol, benzodiazepines and barbituates. In general these drugs bind to GABA receptors resulting in sedation.
Drugs in this class increase cental nervous system activity. Includes cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamines, and methylphenidate.
These drugs change sensory perception and have the ability to alter reality and produce hallucination-like effects. Includes naturally occuring and synthetic drugs such as: LSD, mescaline, psylocybin, psilocin, MDMA, PCP and ketamine.
Includes marijuana, hashish and THC
Chemicals that can be legally purchased and that are normally used for non-recreational purposes. Includes industrial solvents and aerosol sprays and include, but are not limited to: gasoline, kerosene, airplane glue, acetone, lighter fluid, metallic paints, correction flids, amyl, butyl and isobutyl nitrite and nitrous oxide.
Synthetic illicit drugs that are used to increase muscle mass and improve athletic performance. Include Depo-testosterone, Durabolin, Danocrine, and Halotestin. Some are approved for veterinary medicine and sold illicitly for human use.
combining oral and injectable steroids.
Symptoms of Depressant intoxication
decreased inhibition, slowed reaction times, memory impairment, possible decrease in respirations, slurred speech, ataxia,
Symptoms of Stimulant intoxication
increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure and temperature, decreased respiration. dilated pupils, dry mouth, cardiac arrhythmias, twitching tremors, impaired judgment, confusion, disinhibited behavior, paranoid thoughts, hypervigilance, hallucinations, elation.
Symptoms of PCP adverse reactions
psychotic reactions, bizarre behavior, outbursts of hostility and violence, severe anxiety, doom or impending death.
Adverse Ketamine reacation
Completed sensory detachment, explained as a near-death experience, paranoia, boredom and possible coma.
Symptoms of cannabinoid intoxication
slowed reaction time, altered perceptions, panic, anxiety, nausea, dizziness, depersonalization, paranoid thoughts, trouble expressing thoughts. May cause increases in respiration and heart rate and a slight increase in body temperature. Red eyes, mild dilation, mild tremors, decreased coordination, decreased strength, less ability to perform complex motor tasks and dry mouth.
Symptoms of Inhalant intoxication
reduction of inhibition and euphoria, dizziness, slurred speech, unsteady gait and drowsiness. Nystagmus may be noted, altered consciousness and enhanced sexual pleasure.
the constant involuntary movement of the eyes.