jc science chemistry plastics chapter 31

39 terms by reckdun 

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crude oil

petroleum as it comes out of the ground and before it has been refined or processed into useful products such as petrol and plastics

monomer

A molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.

polymer

a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers

effect of Moleculer weight (MW) of plastic

1 .higher molecular weight polymers tend to be tougher and more chemically resistant
2. the higher the molecular weight is, the more energy in the form of temperature and pressure required to process the material

Polymers may form into:

1. long chains of molecules without any side protrusions or branches
2. may form in the shape of branched molecules
3. giant three-dimensional networks
4. linear molecules with regular lateral connections to form "laddertype" polymers
5. two-dimensional networks or platelets

amorphous polymers

1. noncrystalline
2. do not have melting points, but rather softening ranges
3. normally transparent
4. undergo only small volume changes when solidifying from the melt

Crystalline polymers

1. have considerable order to the molecules in the solid state
2. have a true melting point with a latent heat of fusion associated with the melting and freezing process
3. have a relatively large volume change during the transition from melt to solid

linear polymers, such as high-density polyethylene

made of molecules that resemble spaghetti
in a bowl and are relatively free to slide over
one another or to pack more closely together

Branched polymers, such
as low-density polyethylene

1. have side appendages and interconnections that cause the molecules to resemble clumps of tree branches that cannot be easily compressed or compacted.
2. Have more voids, so are more permeable to gases and solvents than linear polymers,
3. lower in density (since the molecules are not compacted

Cross-linked structures

1. the individual chain segments are strongly bound together by chemical unions
2. Example: family of thermosetting
plastics
3. do not exhibit creep or relaxation unless such primary bonds actually are broken by continually applied stress or by elevated
temperatures high enough to cause chemical
decomposition of the polymer.
4. fairly resistant to solvent attack

polymerisation

The repetitive bonding of small molecules (monomers) to produce large molecules (polymers).

arrangement of the molecules
within the structure of a polymer mass

in most cases relatively sensitive to temperature

structure of any given polymer
can be significantly changed

by exposing it to
different temperatures and enenal treatments

The simple substitution of a single hydrogen atom with another atom or chemical group can

cause a drastic change in the properties of a
polymer. Example: polyethylene vs polystyrene

polyethylene

translucent, flexible, and crystalline

polystyrene

is transparent, brittle, and amorphous

Thermosets

1. always have more than two linkages connecting the various structural units in the polymer
2. commonly referred to as cross-linked materials involving a networklike molecular structure

Polyethylene

Milky/waxy texture or feel, very versatile plastic (can be formed in a number of ways). Used in sheeting or film (painters tarps), bottles, containers, tupperware, ethafoam rod, and other polyethylene foams.

Polypropylene

_________ is used extensively in disposable diapers, geotextiles for road beds, tufted carpet backing, indoor-outdoor carpet, protective coverall, and wickable underwear.

Polystyrene

polymer of styrene; hard, rigid, clear solid, soluble in organic solvents used in toys, cabinets and packaging

Polyvinyl chloride

vinyl polymer constructed of repeating vinyl groups (ethenyls) having one of their hydrogens replaced with a chloride group. Polyvinyl chloride is the third most widely produced plastic, after polyethylene and polypropylene. PVC is widely used in construction because it is cheap, durable, and easy to assemble

Polyvinyl acetate

Polyacrylonitrile

polyacrylonitrile have been used as fibers in hot gas filtration systems, outdoor awnings, sails for yachts, and fiber-reinforced concrete

Methyl pentene polymer (TPX)

excellent electrical insulating properties and strong hydrolysis resistance. In addition, TPX® features low dielectric, superb clarity, transparency, gas permeability, heat and chemical resistance and release qualities. caps for makeup, animal cages etc

Polyvinyl alcohol

PVA,r, A water-soluble synthetic thickener/adhesive.

Polymethyl acrylate

(PMMA) is a transparent thermoplastic, often used as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass. It is sometimes called acrylic glass

Polyvinyl fluoride

Weather resistant film for glazing panels, surface covering for PVC film. Film covering in aircraft interiors to reduce flammability, glazing for solar panels

Polyvinylidene fluoride

PVDF It is available as piping products, sheet, tubing, films, plate and an insulator for premium wire. high gloss metal paints, chemical resistant

Polyvinyl dichloride

(organic chemistry) A high-strength polymer of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride; it is self-extinguishing and has superior chemical resistance; used for pipes carrying hot, corrosive materials. Abbreviated PVDC.

Polymelhyl methacrylate

Chlorotrifluoroethylene

Polytetrafluoroethylene

teflon common name

teflon

Found by Accident in 1983 by Roy Plunkett
Teflon is a Polymer
Found in: Space Shuttles, Surgical Implants, stain Gaurds, easy to clean pots and pans, Trade name of PTFE. Coating for cookware, oil resistant finish

thermosetting

plastics that char (blacken) when heated instead of softening; polyester, epoxy, FRP (fiberglass reinforced plastic), melamine, polyethylene, vinyls,

thermosoftening

. . . . . . . . plastics have strong covalent bonds between atoms but have weak intermolecular bonds

cracking

_________________The breaking of the long carbon chains found in the hydrocarbons in crude oil by heating at high temperatures to form smaller molecules that are more useful.

biodegradeable

_______________________capable of being broken down by microorganisms into simple compounds such as carbon dioxide, water, or minerals

non biodegradeable

________________________things that are not able to be broken down by bacteria or other living things. EX: plastic bags, Sytrofoam, glass

cellulose acetate

A product of cellulose used as rayon, photographic film and plastic. Acetate is derived from cellulose by deconstructing wood pulp into a purified fluffy white cellulose,

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