Church History: Chapter 6 Test
|What was the black death, how was it transmitted, what were it symptoms, how did it affect people's faith, how did it affect the priesthood, how did it affect the Church overall?||transmitted...highly contagious...originally by the fleas that wean are on rats that were brought over on a ship...fleas will in turn bite people...then it just became highly contagious...religious monks and sisters would go out and aid those that were sick and they would then get the disease...greatly affected the church...monks were lose...priesthood: a lot of priests were not trained in seminary instead apprentice...the oldest priest teach the younger priest...words of the mass, have one bible...when the older priest dies, the younger priest doesn't have time to speak Latin...they would make things up...people did not receive the sacraments...etc...factor to the reformation|
|Write a biography on St. Joan of Arc.||-Had visions at a young age|
-THREE TASKED ENTRUSTED TO HER: 1. Save the city of Orleans from English siege 2. Arrange crowning of Charles as King of France 3. Drive the English from French soil
-Made a prediction that French forces would be beat at a particular battle and they were...got the people's attention now
-She was taken to see the King wearing men's clothing...never seen a picture of the King and she found him when he was dressed like a soldier
-Sent to Poitiers which allows her to go into battle with the French forces...requested that the English King withdraw his troops from french soil...refuses
-Had completed 2 of her 3 tasks...told the king to finish the job and drive the English from French soil...he refused, she wanted to go home, army detained her
-She was captured but Charles and his advisors made no attempt to rescue to her
-She was tried of heresy or witchcraft...found guilty on both charges
-Burned at the stake at the age of 19
|Write a paragraph about St. Catherine of Sienna, be sure to include her contribution to ending the Babylonian captivity of the papacy.||-St. Catherine found her vocation at the young age of seven. She was a virgin for her whole life. She received A TON of visions and she responded to them. At 16, she joined the Dominican Order of nuns. She experienced conversations with Christ and had other strong mystical experiences. For example, she underwent a common experience called "spiritual espousal" this is when Christ tells the soul that he takes them as his bride. After many years, she turned back to the world and served the sick and the poor (especially people with the plague). Later in her life she experienced visions of Heaven, Hell, and Purgatory. She also had a stigmata on her hand and her body was incorruptible.|
|Explain the major events of the Great Western Schism.||Election of the new pope: Urban VI. People were angered about the French dominance and demanded for a Roman or Italian Pope. Urban VI arrived in Rome and the people accepted him. He had a lot of experience in Church and state affairs, he was a capable administrator, and was an honest man. But...he made quick decisions and didn't think through them, he didn't listen to advice, and his style was volatile.|
Election of the 2nd pope: Clement VII. He attempted to take the papal throne by force. At this time both Pope Urban VI and Pope Clement VII thought they were popes.
CONFLICT: many people said that Urban was the rightful pope, while cardinals disagreed. Both Popes excommunicated each other and their followers. Secular leaders took sides.
Two men claiming to be pope at the same time is known as the Great Western Schism. Lasted 38 years.
|Explain the Babylonian Captivity of the papacy/Avignon Papacy.||The French and English kings would not agree. Pope Boniface VIII issued a formal decree called Unam Sanctam. It said that it was necessary that every human should be subject to the pope. The king France sent soldiers to arrest him. He was killed. |
The cardinals reached an agreement. In June 1305 Bertrand de Got was to be the pope. He was the archbishop of Bordeaux, he was under English control but at the same time was a frenchman and was a friend of the french king.
Because Bertrand de Got had cancer, he stayed in Avignon instead of Rome. Rome lost its political say.
POPES: 7 popes, built a papal palace, reformed church structures. -Avignon was a more peaceful place, Avignon became papal territory, closer to major centers of Catholicism. Eventually, the pope moved back to Rome.
|Summarize the main ideas you learned about Renaissance Art and Architecture. Be sure to mention the key figure (Michelangelo, DaVinci, etc.)||-Renaissance means rebirth|
-Started in the 15th Century...based on Greek and Roman art
-Space and perspective were VERY important.
The high Renaissance-Rome. The wealth and power shifted from italy to rome.
RAPHEL (the painter)
-most influential, important, and talented painter of the Renaissance. Painted portraits. He used frescoes and religious and themed oils. He painted the School of Athens and the Transfiguration. He used perspective in all of his art pieces.
|How/when did the fall of Constantinople take place; why is there a separate Russian Orthodox Church?||Fall of Constantinople...1439-1453 continuously under siege...from Constantinople to Rome asking for another crusade, we need troops to help us because we are afraid we are going to loose the city...Reunite with the Western church and the East with help you...accept filioque, pope, and whatever else...when the delegation went back to Constantinople and the people were very upset...1453 fall...the Russian partrich returned to st. Petersburg wearing a Roman cross and his own people beat him up and so they formed their religion, Russian Orthodox Church...page 172|
|Please be sure to read "Christianity in Spain and the New World"||Lot of Islamic influence in spain...Spain was largely occupy by Islamic forces...Isabella and Ferdinand rooted out non-christians...people were killed, Jewish, Muslims, etc...trying to make sure everyone was Christian to unify the country again...Spanish Inquistion...pope said that they could have the Inquistion ...spain and Portugal unify...panel before people would come before to be questioned about their beliefs...some were accused of heresy and killed|
|PLease be sure to read "Dissenting Opinions during the Renaissance."|| Christianity was unified until the East and West Schism...people in other countries started to question the church|
|theologian in England...questioned the way the church was run...the tradition you don't really need...all you need is a Bible and scripture||John Wycliff|
|theologian...he was right about a lot of things...the church has gotten away from Jesus and the simplicy and poverty of Christ, we need to be imitating Christ more...executed||John Hus|
|Dominican...in a religious order, known for their preaching...became a prominent figure in Florence, Italy...outspoken preach...spoke out immorality...people started to listen to him and he had an amazing affect on his people...problem was that he crictized the pope...issued interdict in Florence...now the people cannot go to confession or mass, ect. people got mad at him...burned at the stake for heresy||Girolamo Savonarola|
| -painted the Sistine Chapel|
-Painter, sculptor, Architect, and poet
-Used architecture and painting to sculpt
|two Christian rulers of sections of Christian-controlled Spain were married|
-determined to rid Spain of heretics and of anyone who was not a Christian
-1478 they asked the pope to reinstitute the Inquisition in order to investigate the sincerity of people who had converted to Christianity from Judaism or Islam
|Ferdinand and Isabella|
|the pope that was elected at the Concil of Constant to ended the Great West Schism||Martin V|
|asked Michelanglo to paint the the Sistene Chapel||Julius II|
|1302 when Pope Boniface VIII issued a papal bull stating that all rulers are subject to the pope and that it was "necessary for salvation" for every human to subject to the pope||uman sanctum|
|someone who falsely claims to be pope||anti-pope|
|period during which the pope resided in Avignon in the Kingdom of Naples||Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy|
|belief that Church councils have greater authority than the pope||conciliarism|
|Jews and Muslims who converted to Christianity, either willingly or unwillingly, following the Christian takeover of Spain||conversos|
|the period from 1378 to 1417 during which two and then three rival people claimed papal authority||Great Western Schism|
|during the Renaissance, an emphasis on the human in intellectual and artistic activity||humanism|
|prohibition against celebrating sacraments in a particular area||interdict|
|a special year of prayer and pilgrimage in the Catholic Church that takes place every fifty years; also called a holy year||jubilee year|
|Michelangelo's statue of mary holding the crucified Jesus||La Pieta|
|Knowledge of God through experience; an intense experience of communion||mysticism|
|belief that God can never be known by the intellect alone||negative theology|
|a formal decree by a pope sealed with a round leaden seal (in Latin, bulla)||papal bull|
|the process in Spain for identifying and punishing suspicious non-Christians and those said to be heretics||Spanish Inquisition|
|a short-lived agreement between leaders of Eastern and Western Christianity on certain doctrines of faith||Union of Florence|