AP III Lab Practical
|Lumbar Plexus||Femoral Nerve|
|Sacral Plexus||Sciatic Nerve|
|Cervical Plexus||Phrenic Nerve|
|Brachial Plexus||Axillary Nerve|
|Lumbosacral Plexus||Pelvic region of trunk and lower limbs.|
|Parasympathetic||What autonomic nervous system has long preganglionic axons?|
|Sympathetic||Which division of the autonomic nervous system innervates the sweat glands and arrector pili muscles of the skin?|
|Olfactory Nerve (I)|| Origin and Course: Fibers arise from this epithelium and run through cribriform plate of ethmoid bone to synapse in these bulbs.|
Function: Sensory by carries afferent impulses associated with sense of smell.
Testing: Person is asked to sniff aromatic substances (ex: perfume, cloves, etc.)
|Optic Nerve (II)||Origin and Course: Fibers arise from retina of eye to form this nerve and pass through this canal of orbit. Fibers partially cross over at this chiasma and continue on to the thalamus as these tracts. Final fibers of this pathway travel from the thalamus to the visual cortex as this radiation.|
Function: Sensory by carries afferent impulses associated with vision.
Testing: Eye chart.
|Oculomotor Nerve (III)||Origin and Course: Fibers emerge from dorsal midbrain and course ventrally to enter the orbit. They exit from skull via superior orbital fissure.|
Functions: Motor by the inferior oblique and superior, inferior, and rectus muscles and controlling lens shape.
Testing: Drawing a H with your hand to test for this.
|Trochlear Nerve (IV)|| Origin and Course: Fibers emerge from midbrain and exit from skull via superior orbital fissure.|
Functions: Motor by providing somatic motor fibers to superior oblique muscles that moves the eyeball.
Testing: Common in III.
|Trigeminal Nerve (V)||Origin and Course: Fibers emerge from pons and form three divisions in different areas from the skull: mandibular division through foramen ovale in sphenoid bone, maxillary division via foramen rotundum in sphenoid bone, and ophthalmic division through superior orbital fissure of eye socket.|
Testing: Touching the face with a pen or with hot or cold things.
|Abducens Nerve (VI)|| Origin and Course: Fibers leave inferior pons and exit from skull via superior orbital fissure to run to eye. |
Functions: Motor by somatic motor fibers to lateral rectus muscle that moves the eyeball.
Testing: Common in III.
|Facial Nerve (VII)|| Origin and Course: Fibers leave pons and travel through temporal bone via internal acoustic meatus, exiting via stylomastoid foramen to reach the face.|
Testing: Anterior two-thirds of tongue by smiling at person for testing.
|Vestibulocochlear Nerve (VIII)|| Origin and Course: Fibers run from inner ear equilibrium and hearing apparatus, housed in temporal bone, through internal acoustic meatus to enter pons.|
Testing: Using tuning fork.
|Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX)|| Origin and Course: Fibers emerge from medulla and leave skull via jugular foramen to run to throat and one third of tongue.|
Testing: Make the person talk to you.
|Vagus Nerve (X)|| Origin and Course: Fibers emerge from medulla and pass through jugular foramen and descend through neck region into thorax and abdomen.|
Testing: Same as IX.
|Accessory Nerve (XI)|| Origin and Course: Fibers arise from the superior aspect of spinal cord, enter the skull, and then travel through jugular foramen to reach muscles of neck and back.|
Testing: Rotate head and shrug shoulders against resistance.
|Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)|| Origin and Course: Fibers arise from medulla and exit from skull via hypoglossal canal to travel to tongue.|
Testing: Protrude (Sticking out) tongue.
|Phrenic Nerve||C₃-C₅ and use in Diaphragm as the sole motor nerve supply.|
|Axillary Nerve||Posterior Cord C₅ and C₆ plus structures served by muscular branches: deltoid and teres minor muscles and cutaneous branches: some skin of shoulder region.|
|Musculocutaneous Nerve||Lateral Cord C₅-C₇ plus muscular branches: flexor muscles in anterior arm (biceps brachii, brachialis, coracobrachialis) and cutaneous branches: skin on anterolateral forearm (extremely variable).|
|Median Nerve||Two branches: C₈ and T₁ plus lateral cord C₅-C₇.|
|Radial Nerve||Posterior Cord of C₅-C₈ and T₁.|
|Sciatic Nerve||Longest nerve in the body; L₄-S₃.|
|Telencephalon||Cerebrum: cerebral hemispheres (cortex, white matter, basal nuclei), lateral ventricles.|
|Diencephalon||(thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus), retina and third ventricle.|
|Mesencephalon||Brain stem; midbrain and cerebral aqueduct.|
|Metencephalon||Brainstem, pons, cerebellum and fourth ventricle.|
|Myelencephalon||Brainstem: medulla oblongata and fourth ventricle.|
|Primary Motor Area||4|
|Broca's Area||44, 45|
|Primary Somatosensory Cortex||3, 1, 2|
|Somatosensory Association Area||5, 7|
|Primary Visual Cortex||17|
|Visual Association Area||18, 19|
|Auditory Association Area||41, 42|
|Parasympathetic Division||Secretes ACh, long preganglionic axon; short postganglionic axon, arise from cranial and sacral nerves, normally in control, and has more specific control (look it up!) and has cranial nerves 3, 7, 9, and 10.|
|Sympathetic Division||Secretes NE/E, short preganglionic axon; long postganglionic axon, areas from spinal nerves T₁ through L₃, and has "Fight-or-flight" system.|
|Saphenous||Sensory impulses from the genital region transmitted to the CNS.|
|Motor Neurons Destroyed||What happened if the ventral root of a spinal root was damaged or transected?|
|Thalamus||Structure that project sensory signals to the visual cortex.|
|Lateral Rectus||Moves Eyes Laterally and Abducens|
|Medial Rectus||Moves Eyes Medially and Oculomotor|
|Superior Rectus||Elevates Eye and Turns it Medially and Oculomotor|
|Inferior Rectus||Depresses Eye and Turns it Medially and Oculomotor|
|Inferior Oblique||Elevates Eye and Turns it Laterally and Oculomotor|
|Superior Oblique||Depresses Eye and Turns it Laterally and Trochlear|