How did Jefferson attempt to win over the Federalists while keeping with Republican principles?
A) Maintained the national bank and debt-repayment plan of Hamilton
B) fpol: carried on the neutrality policies of Washington and Adams
C) kept limited central government (Republican)
*realized that constitution needed to be interpreted loosely
Why did Jefferson want the Louisiana Territory? Why was Napoleon willing to part with it?
A) J: Wanted to keep out of Euro affairs
B) N: needed money after rebellion & wanted to concentrate Fr forces to fight UK
How much money did the US pay for Louisiana? What constitutional predicament did Jefferson find with the purchase?
A) $15 million for the entire Louisiana territory
B) Constitution didn't authorize pres to buy land/expand nation -> TJ did it anyway
What was significant about the Lewis and Clark expedition?
A) Increased geologic and scientific knowledge
B) Strengthened US claims to the Oregon territory
C) Improved relations with Native American tribes
D) Developed maps and trade routes
Discuss the constitutional views of John Marshall and how it influenced the Supreme Court during his time as Chief Justice.
A) Broad interpretation of the Constitution
What was the result of Marbury vs. Madison?
*Established concept of judicial review
Why did Jefferson try impeaching judges? Was it a success?
A) Tried to impeach because they were federalist
(like FDR and court packing)
B) Overall, unsuccessful.
Describe the conspiracies of Aaron Burr after he was dropped from the Jefferson ticket.
A) Joined radical NE Federalists to try to become gov of NY and then secede from union
B) Dueled and killed Hamilton (a Fed. leader) over an insulting remark
How did Jefferson's policy towards the Barbary Pirates differ from Washington and Adams?
A) TJ sent a small American fleet to fight the pirates which wen ton between (1801-1805)
B) Washington and Adams reluctantly paid the pirates in tribute to avoid conflict
*US gained respect (TJ, too)
What was the Chesapeake-Leopard affair? How did it illustrate world events at the time?
A) Off the coast of VA the British ship Leopard fired on the US warship Chesapeake
B) 3 Americans killed and 4 impressed by the British navy
*Anti British feelings and many wanted to go to war (-> W1812)
*Jefferson avoided war
Why did Jefferson pass the Embargo Act of 1807? Why was it a major failure?
A) US merchant ships X travelling to foreign ports
B) Intention: stop UK from violating US neutral rights by cutting off trade
*failure: UK was major source of income -> people lost $ and ec disparity grew
Discuss the Nonintercourse Act and Macon's Bill #2, keeping the context of neutrality and foreign trade in mind.
A) NA: let US to trade any country except UK and Fr (in hopes that the US could recover economically) but fight for its neutral sea rights.
B) MB2: restored US trade with UK and Fr but said if either promised to respect US neutrality rights, the US would embargo the other
*US attempts to keep rights and preserve trade
What were the major causes of the War of 1812?
A) UK and Fr violations of US neutral trading rights
B) UK impressment and GB's policy of impressments,
C) US blame of UK for aiding Tecumseh, the Prophet, and their rebellion against the US pioneers constantly pushing west
D) Pressure from the war hawks for war to 1. defend US honor 2. gain Canada, and 3. destroy Native American resistance on the frontier.
How did the War of 1812 show the major divisions in America at the time?
A) most of the north voted against the war while the south and west voted for it.
B) revealed the divide between 1. old and new republicans, 2. republicans and federalists, and the 3. northern merchants and the rest of the population.
Identify the following key events of the war of 1812: Battle of Fort McHenry, Star Spangled Banner, Battle of New Orleans, Burning of Washington DC.
A) Battle of Fort McHenry- UK tried to take Baltimore but Fort McHenry held out after a night of bombardment.
B) Star Spangled Banner- FSK wrote to immortalize the victory at Fort McHenry.
C) Battle of New Orleans- General Andrew Jackson stopped the UK at New Orleans with an army of frontiersmen, free blacks, and creoles, *it was fought after the Treaty of Ghent was signed
D) Burning of Washington DC- UK army marched into DC and set fire to the White House, the Capitol, and other government buildings
Discuss the parameters of the Treaty of Ghent.
A) stopped the fighting
B) returned all conquered territory to the prewar owner,
C) recognized the prewar Canada-US boundary.
D) X concessions for impressments, blockades, or other maritime differences.
*effectively put everything back to pre war status
What was the Hartford Convention? How did it ruin the Federalists?
A) meeting of the New England states that called not for secession but 1. proposed to limit the growing Republican power with measures including a 2. 2/3 vote of both houses for a future declaration of war
B) ruined the Federalists because it made them look unpatriotic when new about the Battle of New Orleans and the Treaty of Ghent came
Know all of the major legacies from the War of 1812 (page 132).
A) US gained respect from surviving two wars with UK
B) US accepted Canada as British neighbor
C) Federalist party ended as national force and declined even in New England
D) New England's talk of nullification and secession set precedent for south
E) Native Americans had to give up lots of land when abandoned by UK
F) More US factories built because of blockade
*increasing US industrial self-sufficiency
G) War heroes (Jackson and William Henry Harrison, etc) = new political leaders
E) Strong US nationalism
F) belief of westward growth away from Europe
How did American cultural nationalism emerge after the War of 1812?
A) new generation put the past with Europe behind them
B) looked toward westward expansion
C) increase in nationalism -> reflected through paintings, books, and schoolbooks.
How did the Tariff of 1816 and Clay's American System illustrate American economic nationalism?
A) T1816 = first protective tariff 1. aimed to support US manufacturers and protect their business from foreign sources 2. supported by the generally anti-tariff south and west (believed to be necessary for the good of the country)
B) Clays' system = 1.protective tariffs 2. a national bank, 3. internal improvements to benefit whole nation
*rejected by the presidents, though, since they thought they were not constitutionally allowed
What caused the Panic of 1819?
A) less of credit by the Second Bank in a belated attempt to control inflation
B) State banks closed
C) currency deflated, unemployment, bankruptcies, and imprisonments for debt increased, and post-war speculation in the west caused debt and depression
How did the Republican Party change after the War of 1812?
A) largely began adopting Federalist ideals
B) maintaining a large military and chartering the Second Bank of the US
*party began to split as new ideas formed.
Discuss the following Marshall rulings: Fletcher vs. Peck, Martin vs. Hunter's Lesse, Dartmouth vs. Woodward, McCulloch vs. Maryland, Gibbons vs. Ogden.
A) Fletcher vs Peck- A state couldn't pass legislation invalidating a contract. *First time Supreme Court declared a state law unconstitutional
B) Martin vs Hunter's Lease- Established that Supreme Court had jurisdiction over state courts in cases involving constitutional rights
C) Dartmouth vs Woodward- Said state couldn't make a law making Darmouth College public because a contract for a private corporation couldn't be altered by the state
D) McCullock vs Maryland- Fed govt had the implied power to create a national bank and a state cannot tax a federal institution because federal laws are supreme over state laws
Why did people begin moving westward?
A) Native Americans were driven from their lands by Harrison and Jackson's victories in the Indiana Territory and the South, B) Northeast had economic difficulties from the embargo that pushed people west
C) Southern tobacco planters needed new land
D) there was improved transportation with roads, canals, steamboats, and railroads
E) European immigrants came for cheap land
How did Missouri's application for statehood alarm many politicians? How did the Tallmadge Amendment further the debate?
A) slavery was well established there and would throw the balance between the slave and free states in the Senate
B). The Tallmadge amendment proposed the prohibition of further introduction of slaves into Missouri and the requirement of the children of Missouri slaves to be emancipated at age 25 (would have essentially killed off slavery in MO -> X in the South)
How did Henry Clay work out a compromise?
A) MO = slave
B) ME = free
C) dividing the rest of the LA Territory by the latitude 36° 30' and prohibiting slavery above it.
What was the Rush-Bagot Treaty (1818)?
A) continuation of the good US-Canadian relations. (The previous disarmament pact limited naval armament on the Great Lakes and placed limits on the US-Canadian border fortifications -> border became the longest unfortified border in the world.)
B) joint fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland
C) joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for ten years
D) northern limits of the Louisiana Territory = 49th parallel, (US-Canada border)
How did Jackson's actions eventually lead to the purchase of Florida?
28. Jackson's actions eventually led to the purchase of Florida because
A) Spain was preoccupied with Latin America
B) Sp = afraid US would take FL by force
C) sold FL and claims ot OR terr to drop $5 mil in claims against Sp and drop territorial claims in TX
Why did Monroe issue his famous Monroe Doctrine? What was the impact of it?
A) European monarchies were returning (threat of Sp regaining lost LA power)
B) Russia was also expanding from Alaska. \
C) Britain suggested a joint declaration to Europe to stay out of the Western Hemisphere
D) John Quincy Adams argued for an independent declaration, since it would be backed by Britain anyway. *main impact: later cited as justification for interference in Latin America.
What were some reasons for the growth in population between 1800 and 1825?
A) high birth rate
B) more European immigrants
C) illegal slave importation.
Discuss the new methods of transportation that arose during the Era of Good Feelings.
A) Roads- used federal and state money, with different states owning different segments of the highway.
B) Canals- The Erie Canal connected Western farms and Eastern cities, stimulating economic growth and sparking the construction of other canals that linked all the major waters east of the Mississippi, lowering food prices in the East and supporting more immigrants settling in the West.
C) Steamboats- The Clermont, a steamboat designed by Robert Fulton, going up the Hudson River sparked more commercially operated steamboat lines, which made round-trip shipping faster and cheaper.
D) Railroads- At first unsafe but later efficient and popular, RRs became good for carrying passengers and freight and expanded the national economy and commercial center cities like Detroit.
What new inventions were made that helped American become more industrial?
Americans became more industrial with the cotton gin and a system of interchangeable parts, both designed by Eli Whitney.
Why did New England emerge as a major center for factories?
A) New England emerged as a major center for factories because of the region's abundant waterpower, for driving machinery and ports for shipping goods.
B) Capital was available there because its maritime industry was declining and there was lots of labor because farming was declining as well.
C) The factories also helped grow financial businesses like banking and insurance.
Discuss the labor used in early factories as well as the influence of unions on industry.
A)Young farm women and children were the main source of labor for factories (later they began using lots of immigrants). B)Unions had little effect of industry yet.
What factors led to the utilization of cash crops in agriculture?
A) Cheap land and easy credit and an opening of new markets in the Eastern factory cities led to the utilization of cash crops in agriculture
B) Cotton gained speed over tobacco and indigo because of the cotton gin. Cotton also had a good market in the British textile industries.
Discuss the effects of the Market Revolution on American society.
A) improved the standard of living for most.
B) Women stopped working with their husbands and sought jobs in domestic service or teaching, and if they were married, they usually stayed at home.
C) Arranged marriages were less common and some women elected to have less children, but they were still legally and politically restricted.
D) The gap between the wealthy and poor increased. Social mobility grew, though. Slavery was becoming unfeasible until the boom in the cotton industry, and hopes for a quiet end to slavery were destroyed.