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Electroconvulsive therapy is most useful in the treatment of:
A) schizophrenia.
B) depression.
C) personality disorders.
D) anxiety disorders.
E) bipolar disorder.

B) depression.

The technique in which a person is asked to report everything that comes to his or her mind is called ________; it is favored by ________ therapists.
A) active listening; cognitive
B) spontaneous remission; humanistic
C) free association; psychoanalytic
D) systematic desensitization; behavior

C) free association; psychoanalytic

Of the following categories of psychotherapy, which is known for its nondirective nature?
A) psychoanalysis
B) humanistic therapy
C) behavior therapy
D) cognitive therapy

B) humanistic therapy

Which of the following is not a common criticism of psychoanalysis?
A) It emphasizes the existence of repressed memories.
B) It provides interpretations that are hard to disprove.
C) It is generally a very expensive process.
D) It gives therapists too much control over patients.

D) It gives therapists too much control over patients.

Which of the following types of therapy does not belong with the others?
A) cognitive therapy
B) family therapy
C) behavior therapy
D) psychosurgery

D) psychosurgery

Which of the following is not necessarily an advantage of group therapies over individual therapies?
A) They tend to take less time for the therapist.
B) They tend to cost less money for the client.
C) They are more effective.
D) They allow the client to test new behaviors in a social context.

C) They are more effective.

Which biomedical therapy is most likely to be practiced today?
A) psychosurgery
B) electroconvulsive therapy
C) drug therapy
D) counterconditioning

C) drug therapy

The effectiveness of psychotherapy has been assessed both through clients' perspectives and through controlled research studies. What have such assessments found?
A) Clients' perceptions and controlled studies alike strongly affirm the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
B) Whereas clients' perceptions strongly affirm the effectiveness of psychotherapy, studies point to more modest results.
C) Whereas studies strongly affirm the effectiveness of psychotherapy, many clients feel dissatisfied with their progress.
D) Clients' perceptions and controlled studies alike paint a very mixed picture of the effectiveness of psychotherapy.

B) Whereas clients' perceptions strongly affirm the effectiveness of psychotherapy, studies point to more modest results.

Cognitive-behavior therapy aims to:
A) alter the way people act.
B) make people more aware of their irrational negative thinking.
C) alter the way people think and act.
D) countercondition anxiety-provoking stimuli.

C) alter the way people think and act.

The results of meta-analysis of the effectiveness of different psychotherapies reveals that:
A) no single type of therapy is consistently superior.
B) behavior therapies are most effective in treating specific problems, such as phobias.
C) cognitive therapies are most effective in treating depressed emotions.
D) all of the above are true.

D) all of the above are true.

The antipsychotic drugs appear to produce their effects by blocking the receptor sites for:
A) dopamine.
B) epinephrine.
C) norepinephrine.
D) serotonin.

A) dopamine.

Psychologists who advocate a ________ approach to mental health contend that many psychological disorders could be prevented by changing the disturbed individual's ________.
A) biomedical; diet
B) family; behavior
C) humanistic; feelings
D) preventive; environment

D) preventive; environment

An eclectic psychotherapist is one who:
A) takes a nondirective approach in helping clients solve their problems.
B) views psychological disorders as usually stemming from one cause, such as a biological abnormality.
C) uses one particular technique, such as psychoanalysis or counterconditioning, in treating disorders.
D) uses a variety of techniques, depending on the client and the problem.

D) uses a variety of techniques, depending on the client and the problem.

The technique in which a therapist echoes and restates what a person says in a nondirective manner is called:
A) active listening.
B) free association.
C) systematic desensitization.
D) meta-analysis.

A) active listening.

Unlike traditional psychoanalytic therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy:
A) helps people gain insight into the roots of their problems.
B) offers interpretations of patients' feelings.
C) focuses on current relationships.
D) does all of the above.

C) focuses on current relationships.

The technique of systematic desensitization is based on the premise that maladaptive symptoms are:
A) a reflection of irrational thinking.
B) conditioned responses.
C) expressions of unfulfilled wishes.
D) all of the above.

B) conditioned responses.

The operant conditioning technique in which desired behaviors are rewarded with points or poker chips that can later be exchanged for various rewards is called:
A) counterconditioning.
B) systematic desensitization.
C) a token economy.
D) exposure therapy.

C) a token economy.

One variety of ________ therapy is based on the finding that depressed people often attribute their failures to ________.
A) humanistic; themselves
B) behavior; external circumstances
C) cognitive; external circumstances
D) cognitive; themselves

D) cognitive; themselves

A person can derive benefits from psychotherapy simply by believing in it. This illustrates the importance of:
A) spontaneous remission.
B) the placebo effect.
C) the transference effect.
D) interpretation.

B) the placebo effect.

Before 1950, the main mental health providers were:
A) psychologists.
B) paraprofessionals.
C) psychiatrists.
D) the clergy.

C) psychiatrists.

Carl Rogers was a ________ therapist who was the creator of ________.
A) behavior; systematic desensitization
B) psychoanalytic; insight therapy
C) humanistic; client-centered therapy
D) cognitive; cognitive therapy for depression

C) humanistic; client-centered therapy

Using techniques of classical conditioning to develop an association between unwanted behavior and an unpleasant experience is known as:
A) aversive conditioning.
B) systematic desensitization.
C) transference.
D) electroconvulsive therapy.

A) aversive conditioning.

Which type of psychotherapy emphasizes the individual's inherent potential for self-fulfillment?
A) behavior therapy
B) psychoanalysis
C) humanistic therapy
D) biomedical therapy

C) humanistic therapy

Light-exposure therapy has proven useful as a form of treatment for people suffering from:
A) bulimia.
B) seasonal affective disorder.
C) schizophrenia.
D) dissociative identity disorder.

B) seasonal affective disorder.

Which type of psychotherapy focuses on changing unwanted behaviors rather than on discovering their underlying causes?
A) behavior therapy
B) cognitive therapy
C) humanistic therapy
D) psychoanalysis

A) behavior therapy

The techniques of counterconditioning are based on principles of:
A) observational learning.
B) classical conditioning.
C) operant conditioning.
D) behavior modification.

B) classical conditioning.

In which of the following does the client learn to associate a relaxed state with a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing situations?
A) cognitive therapy
B) aversive conditioning
C) counterconditioning
D) systematic desensitization

D) systematic desensitization

Principles of operant conditioning underlie which of the following techniques?
A) counterconditioning
B) systematic desensitization
C) stress inoculation training
D) the token economy

D) the token economy

Which of the following is not a common criticism of behavior therapy?
A) Clients may not develop intrinsic motivation for their new behaviors.
B) Behavior control is unethical.
C) Outside the therapeutic setting, the new behavior may disappear.
D) All of the above are criticisms of behavior therapy.

D) All of the above are criticisms of behavior therapy.

Which type of therapy focuses on eliminating irrational thinking?
A) EMDR
B) client-centered therapy
C) cognitive therapy
D) behavior therapy

C) cognitive therapy

Antidepressant drugs are believed to work by affecting serotonin or:
A) dopamine.
B) lithium.
C) norepinephrine.
D) acetylcholine.

C) norepinephrine.

After many years of taking antipsychotic drugs, Greg's facial muscles sometimes twitch involuntarily. This behavior is called:
A) tardive dyskinesia
B) spontaneous recovery
C) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
D) EMDR

A) tardive dyskinesia

Which of the following is the mood-stabilizing drug most commonly used to treat bipolar disorder?
A) Ativan
B) chlorpromazine
C) Xanax
D) lithium

D) lithium

The types of drugs criticized for reducing symptoms without resolving underlying problems are the:
A) antianxiety drugs.
B) antipsychotic drugs.
C) antidepressant drugs.
D) amphetamines.

A) antianxiety drugs.

Which form of therapy is most likely to be successful in treating depression?
A) behavior therapy
B) psychoanalysis
C) cognitive therapy
D) humanistic therapy

C) cognitive therapy

Although Moniz won the Nobel prize for developing the lobotomy procedure, the technique is not widely used today because:
A) it produces a lethargic, immature personality.
B) it is irreversible.
C) calming drugs became available in the 1950s.
D) of all of the above reasons.

D) of all of the above reasons.

Therapeutic life-style change, the new approach to treating psychological disorders, advocates a training program with which of the following goals?
A) increasing aerobic exercise
B) at least 30 minutes of light exposure a day
C) identifying and reducing negative thoughts
D) all of the goals

D) all of the goals

Among the common ingredients of the psychotherapies is:
A) the offer of a therapeutic relationship.
B) the expectation among clients that the therapy will prove helpful.
C) the chance to develop a fresh perspective on oneself and the world.
D) all of the above.

D) all of the above.

Family therapy differs from other forms of psychotherapy because it focuses on:
A) using a variety of treatment techniques.
B) conscious rather than unconscious processes.
C) the present instead of the past.
D) how family tensions may cause individual problems.

D) how family tensions may cause individual problems.

One reason that aversive conditioning may only be temporarily effective is that:
A) for ethical reasons, therapists cannot use sufficiently intense unconditioned stimuli to sustain classical conditioning.
B) patients are often unable to become sufficiently relaxed for conditioning to take place.
C) patients know that outside the therapist's office they can engage in the undesirable behavior without fear of aversive consequences.
D) most conditioned responses are elicited by many nonspecific stimuli and it is impossible to countercondition them all.

C) patients know that outside the therapist's office they can engage in the undesirable behavior without fear of aversive consequences.

empathetic technique used in person-centered therapy

active listening

an operant conditioning procedure

token economy

the beneficial effect of a person's expecting that treatment will be effective

placebo effect

type of psychosurgery

lobotomy

mood-stabilizing drug

lithium

the study of the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior

psychopharmacology

experimental procedure in which both the patient and staff are unaware of a patient's treatment condition

double-blind technique

antianxiety drug

Xanax

technique of psychoanalytic therapy

free association

cognitive-behavioral therapy in which peoplea re trained to be restructure ther thinking in stressful situations

stress inoculation training

clinical decision making that integrates research, clinical expertise, and patient characteristics

evidence-based practice

category of therapies that teach people more adaptive ways of thinking and acting

cognitive therapy

category of therapies based on learning principles derived from classical and operant conditioning

behavior therapy

associates a relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli

systematic desensitization

integrated therapy that focuses on changing self-defeating thinking and unwanted behavior

cognitive-behavioral therapy

therapy developed by Carl Rogers

client-centered therapy

the most widely used method of beahvior therapy

exposure therapy

associates unwanted behavior with unpleasant experiences

aversive conditioning

therapy based on Freud's theory of personality

psychoanalysis

emphasizes the social context of psychological disorders

preventative mental health

treatment with psychosurgery, electroconvulsive therapy, or drugs

biomedical therapy

classical conditioning procedure in which new responses are conditioned to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors

counterconditioning

therapies that aim to increase the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses

insight therapy

is briefer an less expensive than traditional psychoanalysis, and it focuses on current symptoms and themes common to many past and present important relationships

psychodynamic therapy

views a family as an interactive system and attempts to help members discover the roles they play and to learn to communicate more openly and directly

family therapy

used in treating schizophrenia and block dopamine activity and can have serious side effects

antipsychotic drug

depress central nervous system actiity, and are used to treat anxiety disorders. Can be physically and psychologically addictive

antiaxiety drugs

increase the availability of serotonin and norepinephrine and are used to treat anxiety and depression

antidepressant

a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthized patient, and is an effective last resortment treatment for severely depressed people who have not responsed to other therapy.

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

calms an overactive brain region linked with negative emotions

repetitive magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

removes or destroys brain tissue in hopes of modifying behavior

psychosurgery

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