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Fort Sumter

Union-controlled fort in South Carolina where the first official fighting of the Civil War occurred

Anaconda Plan

Northern strategy in the Civil War in which they would surround the South

Bull Run

first major bloodshed of the Civil War in which General Irvin McDowell led Union forces against General Thomas Jackson (South) near Washington, D.C. The first Southern victory in the War

Thomas Jackson

Confederate general who led Confederate troops in the battle of Bull Run. Known for being as "strong as a Stonewall"

George McClellan

appointed by Lincoln to lead the new Union army; known for being very cautious in his military tactics; achieved victory at Antietam

Ulysses Grant

Union General who was known for various military victories in Tennessee during the Civil War and fighting at the Battle of Shiloh

Shiloh

Battle in which the Southern soldiers surprise attacked the Union forces; taught both sides of the war the importance of using scouts, digging trenches, and building fortifications.

David Farragut

commander of a Union fleet based in the Mississippi River; was successful in attacking and seizing New Orleans

Monitor

Union's first ironclad ship

Robert Lee

general who took command of the Confederate forces; achieved victory at the Second Battle of Bull Run

Antietam

bloodiest single-day battle in American history; fought between McClellan's northern forces and Lee's Southern forces

minie ball

a cone-shaped bullet, made of soft lead, with a hollow base that would cause a rifle to shoot farther and more accurately than a musket

rifling

technology in which the inside of a firearm's barrel had grooves, causing the bullet to spin

Gatling gun

a large, rapid-fire weapon with multiple rotating barrels, cranked by hand

Abraham Lincoln

Republican president of the Union

Jefferson Davis

president of the Confederacy

Merrimack

Confederacy's first ironclad ship

ironclad

a ship that is covered with iron plates

Trent Affair

event in which a Union ship stopped a British ship in order to arrest two Confederate representatives who were attempting negotiations between the Confederacy and Britain

Emancipation Proclamation

Lincoln's speech which freed slaves in areas of Confederate control.

habeas corpus

court order that requires authorities to bring a person held in jail before the court to determine why he or she is being jailed.

Copperheads

Northern Democrats who advocated peace with the South

conscription

a draft that would force certain members of the population to serve in the army.

54th Massachusetts

first regiment made of African American soldiers; fought for the Union.

income tax

a tax that takes a specified percentage of an individual's income.

Chancellorsville

Battle in which Lee defeats general Joseph Hooker and forced the Union army to retreat; Southern victory

Gettysburg

three-day battle between Robert E. Lee and George Meade, in which the Union outlasted the Confederacy and caused them to retreat; left the Confederate troops permanently weakened.

Vicksburg

battle in which Ulysses S. Grant placed a Confederate fort under siege; resulted in Northern victory and the Union able to control all of the Mississippi River

Gettysburg Address

Lincoln's speech in which he reaffirms the North's reasons for fighting the Civil War which were to preserve the Union and to free enslaved people.

William Tecumseh Sherman

Union general appointed by Grant as the commander of the military division of the Mississippi; marched Southeast towards George and devastated the South during his "March"

Election of 1864

election in which Lincoln defeated George McClellan and John C. Fremont, getting reelected for his second term as president.

Appomattox Court House

event in which Lee and Grant met to arrange a Confederate surrender; ending the Civil War

National Bank Act

set up a system of federally chartered banks, set requirements for loans, and provided for banks to be inspected.

Thirteenth Amendment

freed all slaves

John Wilkes Booth

Southern sympathizer who assassinated Abraham Lincoln.

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