World War I Vocabulary

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All to do with the vocabulary on the U.S. History test 4/12/12.

Isolationism

A national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs.

Zimmerman Note

Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a German foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German-Mexican alliance against the U.S. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.

Wilsonian Idealism

Wilson sought to instill idealism to inspire Americans to fight. Two goals: 1. "Make the world safe for democracy." 2. "A war to end all wars."

Fourteen Points

The war goals outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace. Called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms, and a league of nations.

Herbert Hoover

Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929. Promised the American people prosperity, and attempted to first deal with the Great Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.

Bernard Baruch

Headed the War Industries Board, which placed the control of industries into the hands of the federal government. It was a prime example of War Socialism.

Collective Security

In international affairs, reliance on a group of nations or an international organization as protection against aggressors, rather than national self-defense alone.

George Creel

Propagandist in charge of the Committee of Public Information.

Eugene V. Debs

President and organizer of the American Railway Union. He organized the Pullman Strike and helped organized the Social Democratic Party. Ran for president against Taft, Roosevelt, and Wilson for the Socialist Party.

Schenck v. United States

A 1919 case in which the Supreme Court affirmed their legality, arguing that freedom of speech could be revoked when such speech posed a "clear and present danger" to the nation.

Treaty of Versailles

Only four of Wilson's original fourteen points were passed. It was condemned by many. Peace treaty at the end of WWI. Penalized Germany. The Big Four decided Germany's fate through this treaty without Germany's attendance.

General Pershing

General of the American Expeditionary Force in WWI.

Draft/Conscription

The selection of citizens for mandatory military service.

National War Labor Board

Board created to ensure the production of vital war materials.

William Howard Taft

Head of the War Labor Board.

Mobilization

The act of assembling and putting into readiness for war or other emergency: "mobilization of the troops."

Wobblies

Nickname for the Industrial Workers of the World. They engaged in industrial sabotage due to their poor working conditions. Common in the lumber and fruit industries.

American Federation of Labor

A union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.

Rationing

A limited portion or allowance of food or goods; limitation of use.

War Bonds

Short-term loans that individual citizens made to the government. Financed two-thirds of the war's cost.

Doughboys

A nickname for the inexperienced but fresh American soldiers during WWI.

Henry Cabot Lodge

The perfect candidate to be the chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. But Wilson did not choose him because the two were enemies personally and politically. Tried to "Americanize," "Republicanize," or "senatorialize" the Treaty of Versailles.

Selective Service Act

Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft.

Samuel Gompers

Head of the American Federation of Labor. Supported the war through smaller, more radical labor organizations, like the Wobblies

American rejection of the League of Nations

Does not want to be a part of the League of Nations because America is isolationist and did not want to get involved in foreign affairs.

Self-Determination

The Wilsonian doctrine that each people should have the right to freely choose its own political affiliation and national future, such as independence or incorporation into another nation.

War Industries Board

An agency headed by Bernard Baruch that held feeble power because of America's love of laissez-faire and weak central government.

Lusitania

American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats. Made America consider entering WWI.

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