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Marieb chapter 21

Passive and Active Immunity

Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of specific immunity that use antibodies

Cytotoxic cells

the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells

Natural Killer cells

can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated

Antigen

in clonal selection of B cells, the substance that is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned

Substances capable of triggering the adaptive immune system and provoking an immune system response are called antigens.
True or False

True

The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by:

Vasodilation

Helper T cells

function in the adaptive immune system activation

Adaptive immune system

is antigen-specific, is systemic, and has memory

Chemotaxis

is the directional movement of cells in response to chemicals

perforin

a protein involved with the mechanism of the "lethal hit"

Monoclonal antibodies

pure antibody preparations specific for a single antigenic determinant

Cytokines

are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes to the area

Antibodies

soluble proteins secreted by plasma cells

opsonization

complete proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and roughen its surface, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism.

B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by:

immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies

phagocytes

are part of the second line of defense against microorganisms

immunocompetence

is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it

All of the following are considered innate body defenses except; complement, phagocytosis, antibodies, lysosomes, inflammation.

anitbodies

The process by which neutrophils squeeze through capillary walls in response to inflammatory signals is called:

diapedesis

antibodies released by plasma cells are involved in:

humoral immunity, immediate hypersensitivity reactions, and autoimmune disorders.

Which of the following antibodies can fix complement?
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, or IgM?

IgG and IgM

Which antibody class is abundant in body secretions?

IgA

Small molecules that must bind with large proteins to become immunogenic are called:

haptens

Lymphocytes that develop immunocompetence in the bone marrow are:

B lymphocytes

Cells that can directly attack target cells include:

macrophages, Cytotoxic T cells, and natural killer cells

Which of the following is involved in the activation of a B cell?
antigen, helper T cell, cytokine, or all of the above?

all off these: antigen, helper T cells, and cytokines

The cell type most often invaded by HIV:

helper T cells

complement fixation promotes:

cell lysis, inflammation, opsonization, and chemotaxis of neutrophils and other cells

phagocyte

neutrophils and macrophages

releases histamine

mast cell and basophils

lymphocytes that release perforins

natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells

effector cells of adaptive immunity

cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells

antigen-presenting cells

dendritic cells, B cells, and macrophages

The body's first line of defense:

the skin and mucous membranes

Innate defenses

surface barriers; skin and mucous membranes, and internal defenses; phagocytes, NK cells, inflammation, antimicrobial proteins, and fever.

Adaptive defenses

Humoral immunity, B cells. Cellular immunity, T cells.

inflammatory response beneficial effects

prevents the spread of damaging agents to nearby tissues, disposes of cell debris and pathogens, and sets the stage for repair

Histamine

released by mast cells and basophils, promotes vasodilation of local arteries, increases permeability of local capillaries, promoting exudate formation.

phagocytes

engulf and destroy pathogens that breach surface membrane barriers

leukocytosis

neutrophils enter blood from red bone marrow in response to chemicals called leukocytosis-inducing factors released by injured cells.

margination

Cell adhesion molecules (CAM's) signal "this is the place" to neutrophils which cause them to bind tightly to endothelial cells on the inner walls of capillaries and postcapillary venules.

Complement

a group of plasma proteins that provide a major mechanism for destroying foreign substances in the body

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