Passive and Active Immunity
Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of specific immunity that use antibodies
in clonal selection of B cells, the substance that is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned
Substances capable of triggering the adaptive immune system and provoking an immune system response are called antigens.
True or False
are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes to the area
complete proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and roughen its surface, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism.
B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by:
immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies
is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it
All of the following are considered innate body defenses except; complement, phagocytosis, antibodies, lysosomes, inflammation.
The process by which neutrophils squeeze through capillary walls in response to inflammatory signals is called:
antibodies released by plasma cells are involved in:
humoral immunity, immediate hypersensitivity reactions, and autoimmune disorders.
Cells that can directly attack target cells include:
macrophages, Cytotoxic T cells, and natural killer cells
Which of the following is involved in the activation of a B cell?
antigen, helper T cell, cytokine, or all of the above?
all off these: antigen, helper T cells, and cytokines
complement fixation promotes:
cell lysis, inflammation, opsonization, and chemotaxis of neutrophils and other cells
surface barriers; skin and mucous membranes, and internal defenses; phagocytes, NK cells, inflammation, antimicrobial proteins, and fever.
inflammatory response beneficial effects
prevents the spread of damaging agents to nearby tissues, disposes of cell debris and pathogens, and sets the stage for repair
released by mast cells and basophils, promotes vasodilation of local arteries, increases permeability of local capillaries, promoting exudate formation.
neutrophils enter blood from red bone marrow in response to chemicals called leukocytosis-inducing factors released by injured cells.
Cell adhesion molecules (CAM's) signal "this is the place" to neutrophils which cause them to bind tightly to endothelial cells on the inner walls of capillaries and postcapillary venules.