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The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body

What is meant by the Bioavailability of a vitamin in food?

Excesses are eliminated from the kidneys

Which of the Following is NOT a general characteristic of the fat-soluble vitamins?

Vitamin A

Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is LEAST likely to affect the vitamin content of?

Excreted primarily in the Urine

When thiamin is consumed in excess of needs, how does the body treat the excess?

Coenzyme participation

What is the primary function of B Vitamins?

Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts

Which of the following explains why B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy?

energy release from energy-yielding nutrients

Which of the following functions has a requirement for thiamin?

Thiamin

The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, which is often observed in poorly nourished alcohol abusers, is known to respond to supplements of?

Riboflavin

The coenzyme FAD is formed from what Vitamin?

Ariboflavinosis

The signs and symptoms of Riboflavin deficiency are known collectively as

ultraviolet light

Riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to

Niacin

Which of the following nutrients functions to prevent the appearance of a bilateral, symmetrical dermatitis, primarily on areas exposed to the sun?

Trytophan

When the diet contains an adequate amount of protein, what amino acid can be used by the body to synthesize niacin?

Pellagra

What vitamin deficiency disease appeared in people who had substituted on a diet high in corn and low in protein?

Depression

Which of the following is NOT among the common signs of pellagra?

Niacin flush

What is the term that identifies the characteristic tingling sensations and reddening of the skin after ingesting a pharmacological dose of nictonic acid?

High doses may lower blood cholesterol

Which of the following is a feature of Niacin nutrition?

Biotin

Among the following compounds that serve as coenzymes in metabolism, which is considered a vitamin for human beings?

Raw egg whites

A protein that binds with biotin (thus inhibiting absorption) is found in which food?

Intestinal bacteria

Biotin can be synthesized by

Folate

Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of

Macrocytic anemia

Which of the following is associated with a deficiency of folate?

It attaches to the vitamin thereby allowing absorption from the Intestines

What is the function of intrinsic factor in vitamin b12 absorption?

Vitamin B12 or Folate

A similar type of anemia is produced when there is a deficiency of either

Hot dog

Of the following foods, which would be the only source of vitamin B12

collagen

The PROTEIN that requires ascorbic acid for its formation is

Subcutaneous pinpoint hemorrhages

Which of the following symptoms is indicative of a deficiency of vitamin C?

Chylomicrons

What is the major carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation?

Cyanocobalamin

Which of the following is NOT a fat-soluble vitamin?

Blood clotting

As far as known, Vitamin A does NOT play an important role in which of the following processes?

Beta-Carotene

Which of the following substances is converted to Vitamin A in the body?

Xeropthalmia

Which of the following is most likely to occur from a prolonged dietary deficiency of Vitamin A?

deficiency of Vitamin A

Keratinization is the result of

consuming high-dose Vitamin A supplements

Which of the following is likely to induce vitamin A toxicity in adults?

pears

All of the following are good sources of Vitamin A, EXCEPT...

Cholesterol

Which of the following compounds serves as the major precursor for the body's synthesis of Vitamin D?

Outdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight

Which of the following enables much of the world's population to maintain adequate Vitamin D status?

Liver and Kidney

In what tissues must a molecule of Vitamin D be chemically altered to yield a compound that is fully active?

Osteomalacia

What is the name of Vitamin D-deficiency disease in adults?

Skeletal

In what system would the effects of vitamin D deficiency be most readily observed?

Bowed Legs

Which of the following symptoms would indicate a vitamin D deficiency?

Osteomalacia and rickets

Which of the following conditions or diseases are known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient?

Antioxidant

The main function of Vitamin E in the body is to be a(n)

Erythrocyte hemolysis

Which of the following disorders may result from vitamin E deficiency in people?

Blood Clotting

In what chief capacity does Vitamin K function?

Both are synthesized in the body

Which of the following properties do Vitamin D and K share?

Newborns

What population group has the highest risk for vitamin K deficiency?

Phylloquinone

The major form of Vitamin K in foods is known as

Vitamin K

Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?

Vitamin K

Which Vitamin is routinely given as a single dose to newborns?

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