Dem JFK vs. Rep Nixon. JFK won because of the civil rights issue and his better TV appearance.
1964 Joint Resolution of Congress
Gulf of Tolkin Resolution.
Congressional resolution passed in 1964 that authorized military action in Southeast Asia. On Aug. 4, 1964, North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin were alleged to have attacked without provocation U.S. destroyers that were reporting intelligence information to South Vietnam. President Lyndon B. Johnson and his advisers decided upon immediate air attacks on North Vietnam in retaliation; he also asked Congress for a mandate for future military action. On Aug. 7, Congress passed a resolution drafted by the administration authorizing all necessary measures to repel attacks against U.S. forces and all steps necessary for the defense of U.S. allies in Southeast Asia. The measure was repealed by Congress in 1970.
created in 1919, passed in 1920, gave women the right to vote
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
An all Japanese American unit that fought primarily in Europe during WWII, while their families were subjected to internment in the U.S. Became the most decorated regiment in the history of the United States armed forces.
A Philip Randolph
America's leading black labor leader who called for a march on Washington D.C. to protest factories' refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II
The American Civil Liberties Union. It defends and preserves the individual rights and liberties that the Constitution and laws of the United States guarantee everyone in this country. Defended teachers who supported evolution.
American Indian Movement. demanded greater rights for Native Americans; used violence to make its point
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
Alliance for Progress
A program formed by JFK in which the United States gave billions of dollers to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems in order to counter Communism.
The United States dropped these on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the led the Japanese to surrender and helped bring an end to WWII
All the banks were ordered to close until new laws could be passed. An emergency banking law was rushed through Congress. The Law set up new ways for the federal government to funnel money to troubled banks It also required the Treasury Department to inspect banks before they could re-open.
Bay of Pigs
An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.
A Soviet attempt under Stalin to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. A high point in the Cold War that led to the Berlin Airlift.
Alabama city against equal rights; peaceful marches in 1963 were broken up brutally by city police.
Attacks by the House Un-American Activities Commission resulted in this, preventing people from getting jobs. The Hollywood Ten were included.
United States labor agents recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers from Mexico. The program stimulated emigration for Mexico.
Brown v Board of Edu
Supreme Court case nullifying Plessy v Ferguson of seperate but equal
Battle in late 1944 where Germans mounted last desperate defense against advancing Allies; more than 100,000 casualties; Marked the end of serious German resistance
California Agriculture & Labor
Changing Role of Women
now had an opportunity in the work place, and they earned more wages. they only made 1/3 the amount of money that men made. Trade-unions were formed.
Civil Rights Act 1964
outlawed discrimination in employment on the basis of race, sex, or religion
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Defense Spending post WWII
The automobile industry successfully converted back to producing cars, and new industries such as aviation and electronics grew by leaps and bounds. A housing boom, stimulated in part by easily affordable mortgages for returning members of the military, added to the expansion. The nation's gross national product rose. At the same time, the jump in postwar births, known as the "baby boom," increased the number of consumers. More and more Americans joined the middle class.
As the Iron Curtain descended across Europe and the United States found itself embroiled in a cold war with the Soviet Union, the government maintained substantial fighting capacity and invested in sophisticated weapons such as the hydrogen bomb. Economic aid flowed to war-ravaged European countries under the Marshall Plan, which also helped maintain markets for numerous U.S. goods. And the government itself recognized its central role in economic affairs. The Employment Act of 1946 stated as government policy "to promote maximum employment, production, and purchasing power."
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages. It was the combination of drought and poor land use practice that created the environmental disaster.
Some examples of modern conveniences in the 20th century include home appliances: washing machines and clothes dryers, dishwashers, microwave ovens, frost-free refrigerators, water heaters, air conditioning, vacuum cleaners, irons and more.
Electricity and electronics: stereo equipment, color television, answering machine, and Video cassette recorders (VCRs).
End of the Cold War
Poland's Solidarity labor union began to rise in power in the late 1970's. They organized strikes, demanding more pay and changes to the unfair labor practices. They organized strikes, demanding more pay and changes to the unfair labor practices. Eventually, they won an end to censorship and political repression, religious freedom, and recognition as a labor union. Gorbachev watched Solidarity's strikes crushed the Polish economy, and finally forced the Polish leaders to allow free elections. Still a communist government, the nation faced massive economic hardships. As electricity, gas, and water prices rose 500 percent while wages remained frozen, the Communist Party voted to dissolve itself on January 29, 1990. Democratic elections were held, and communism fell.
The Berlin Wall was built by the Soviets to prevent citizens of East Germany from escaping to West Germany. East Germany was an embarrassment compared to West Germany. If it were not for the Berlin Wall, hundreds of thousands of Germans might have fled to the West.
Espionage Act of 1918
Laws pushed through by Wilson which imposed stiff penalties for antiwar activities and allowed the federal government to ban treasonous material from being sent through the mail. Anyone who might utter, print, write or publish any disloyal profane, scurrilous or abusive language about the U.S. or the military.
Executive Order ending racial discrimination in defense jobs
Signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to prohibit racial discrimination in the national defense industry. It was the first federal action, though not a law, to promote equal opportunity and prohibit employment discrimination in the United States.
The executive order was issued in response to pressure from civil rights activists Bayard Rustin, A. Philip Randolph, and A. J. Muste, who had planned a march on Washington, D.C. to protest racial discrimination. The march was suspended after Executive Order 8802 was issued.
The Order established the Committee on Fair Employment Practice to investigate alleged violations and "to take appropriate steps to redress grievances which it finds to be valid." Following the end of World War II in Europe, the Committee was terminated by statute on July 17, 1945.
Executive Order ending racial segregation in the military
Issued on July 26, 1948 by U.S. President Harry S. Truman. Truman's Order expanded on Executive Order 8802 by establishing equality of treatment and opportunity in the Armed Services for people of all races, religions, or national origins.
The federal banking authority in the US that performs the functions of a central bank and is used to implement the country's monetary policy, providing a national system of reserve cash available to banks.
As proclaimed in a speech to Congress by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1941: freedom of speech and expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear
one of the many Japanese-American citizens living on the West Coast during World War II. Shortly after the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked Pearl Harbor, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, authorizing the Secretary of War and his military commanders to require all Japanese Americans be removed from designated "military areas" and placed in internment camps. When such orders were issued for the West Coast, Korematsu instead became a fugitive. The legality of the internment order was upheld by the United States Supreme Court in Korematsu v. United States, but Korematsu's conviction was overturned decades later after the disclosure of new evidence, challenging the necessity of the Japanese internment, which had been withheld from the courts by the U.S. government during the war.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(typically abbreviated GATT) was negotiated during the UN Conference on Trade and Employment and was the outcome of the failure of negotiating governments to create the International Trade Organization (ITO)
A domestic program in the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson that instituted federally sponsored social welfare programs
Gulf of Tonkin
In August of 1964, United States President Lyndon B. Johnson said that North Vietnamese forces had twice attacked American destroyers here. Although there was a first attack, claims of a second attack were later said to be exaggerated or unfounded. This led to the open involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War, with the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.
A literary movement in the 1920s that centered on Harlem and was an early manifestation of black consciousness in the US. Included writers such as Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston
This structure demonstrated Hoover's belief in business and government and harnessed the power of a river to provide electricity and water supply to 7 states.
The House Un-American Activities Committee was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda, and searched out communism especially in Hollywood.
Immigration in the last 50 years
Immigration policy since 1960s
During World War II, it was a heavily fortified site of a Japanese airbase, and its attack and capture in 1944-45 was one of the severest US campaigns. It was returned to Japan in 1968
The forced relocation of Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans in the United States to camps during World War II. On February 19, 1942, the U.S. Army, acting under an order signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (and ratified by Congress a month later), ordered nearly 120, 000 Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans into internment camps located in the central regions of the United States.
Jazz post WWII
Although many of the early rhythm-and-blues singers performed with big-band accompaniment, the primary element that separated their music from other big-band music at the time was this: The R&B artists were black and performing and recording for a predominantly black audience. But a lot of white music lovers were paying attention, as well, as were young musicians of all races. Pioneering rockers such as Elvis Presley and Chuck Berry took elements of postwar R&B and incorporated them into their smaller, electrified, guitar-driven ensembles.
Founded in 1860's in the south. They were threats of violence and terrorism to Catholics, Jews, and especially blacks; everybody except the white, protestant men. KKK injured, murdered them, or ruined their property.
A war between the Republic of Korea (supported primarily by the United States of America, with contributions from allied nations under the aegis of the United Nations) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (supported by the People's Republic of China, with military and material aid from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics).
Labor Unions in the 20th Century
The union movement had failed in the previous 50 years to organize the much larger number of laborers in such mass production industries as steel, textiles, mining, and automobiles. These, rather than the skilled crafts, were to be the major growth industries of the first half of the 20th century.
The tremendous gains labor unions experienced in the 1930s resulted, in part, from the pro-union stance of the Roosevelt administration and from legislation enacted by Congress during the early New Deal. The National Industrial Recovery Act (1933) provided for collective bargaining. The 1935 National Labor Relations Act (also known as the Wagner Act) required businesses to bargain in good faith with any union supported by the majority of their employees. Meanwhile, the Congress of Industrial Organizations split from the AFL and became much more aggressive in organizing unskilled workers who had not been represented before. Strikes of various kinds became important organizing tools of the CIO.
African American poet who described the rich culture of African American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.
Lend Lease Act
Congressional law passed in March 1941 allowing FDR to sell weapons to UK to help defend nations vital to US security. First extended to UK, then to USSR after German invasion. War supplies shipped without payment to be "returned" after the war when no longer needed--"lending and leasing".
Little Rock Nine
A group of African-American students who were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. The ensuing Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Arkansas Governor, and then attended after the intervention of President Eisenhower, is considered to be one of the most important events in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. On their first day of school, troops from the Arkansas National Guard would not let them enter the school and they were followed by mobs making threats to lynch.
US political activist. He joined the Nation of Islam in 1946 and became a vigorous campaigner for black rights, initially advocating the use of violence. In 1964, he converted to orthodox Islam and moderated his views on black separatism; he was assassinated the following year
The epic, secret, wartime effort to design and build the world's first nuclear weapon. Commanding the efforts of the world's greatest physicists and mathematicians during World War II, the $20 billion project resulted in the production of the first atomic bombs. Driven by the fear that Hitler's Germany would invent them first, the monumental project took less than four years, and encompassed construction of vast facilities.
In the early 1920's, called on blacks to give up their hopes for integration and to set about forging a separate dismal nation. Called for dim separatism and self-sufficiency known as Black Nationalism. He founded the (UNIA), newspaper Negro World, Dim Star Line, and spread his ideas to the country. He was disliked by some for supporting the Ku Klux Klan, and he went to jail for mail fraud.
A program of financial aid and other initiatives, sponsored by the US, designed to boost the economies of western European countries after World War II. It was originally advocated by Secretary of State George C. Marshall and passed by Congress in 1948
Mass Production during the 1920s
Made technology affordable to the middle class. The automobile, movie, radio, and chemical industries skyrocketed during the 1920s. Of chief importance was the automobile industry. Before the war, cars were a luxury. In the 1920s, mass-produced vehicles became common throughout the U.S. and Canada. The automobile industry's effects were widespread, contributing to such industries as highway building, motels, service stations, used car dealerships and new housing outside the range of mass transit.
Radio became the first mass broadcasting medium. Radio advertising became the grandstand for mass marketing.
In 1925, electrical recording, one of the greatest advances in sound recording became available for commercially issued phonograph records. Hollywood boomed, producing a new form of entertainment that shut down the old vaudeville. Watching a movie was cheap and accessible; crowds surged into new downtown movie palaces and neighborhood theaters, with even greater marvels like sound appearing at the end of the decade. Sound synchronized motion pictures, or "talkies", were quickly replacing silent films between 1927 and 1929.
A vociferous campaign against alleged communists in the US government and other institutions carried out under Senator Joseph McCarthy in the period 1950-54. Many of the accused were blacklisted or lost their jobs, although most did not in fact belong to the Communist Party
Widely regarded as the most important naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of World War II. Between 4 and 7 June 1942, six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States Navy decisively defeated a Japanese attack against Midway Atoll, inflicting irreparable damage on the Japanese fleet. Historians regard it as a stunning defeat of Japanese navy and a turning point of the Pacific war.
United States charismatic civil rights leader and Baptist minister who campaigned against the segregation of Blacks. Was an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African American civil rights movement.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans; got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
NATO & SEATO
US, Canada, and 10 European countries formed North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Members pledged that an attack against one of its members was an attack against all of them. There was some controversy about being entangled with foreign problems.
An international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines.
Navajo Code Talkers
Native Americans who served in the United States Marine Corps whose primary job was the transmission of secret tactical messages.
Neutrality Acts of 1935
Laws that were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930s, in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II. They were spurred by the growth in isolationism and non-interventionism in the US following its costly involvement in World War I, and sought to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts.
National Labor Relations Act. Legalized labor unions, guaranteed right to join union and "good faith" bargaining.
The operation that launched the invasion of German-occupied western Europe during World War II by Allied forces. The operation commenced on 6 June 1944 with the Normandy landings (Operation Neptune, commonly known as D-Day). A 12,000-plane airborne assault preceded an amphibious assault involving almost 7,000 vessels. Nearly 160,000 troops crossed the English Channel on 6 June; more than three million troops were in France by the end of August.
Attempted to combat the Depression through national economic planning by establishing and administering a system of industrial codes to control production, prices, labor relations, and trade practices among leading business interests; ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1935
Nuclear Weapon Treaties
1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty
An agreement between the US, USSR, and UK which prevented nuclear testing above ground, underwater, and in outer space.
1967 Outer Space Treaty
An agreement between the US, USSR, and UK which banned placing weapons of mass destruction in orbit, on the moon, or in any other location in outerspace for military purposes.
1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
An agreement which prevented the spread of nuclear weapons. It made sure that non-nuclear-weapon countries did not start weapons production.
1972 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I ABM treaty
A Treaty between the US and USSR which limited the anti-ballistic missile systems to a maximum of 100 ABMS launchers and missiles. It also prohibits the testing and application of any of these components
1972 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I Interim Agreement
An agreement between the US and USSR keeping the number of strategic ballistic missiles at the same level for 5 years. The construction of more ICBM silos was restricted, but SLBM launcher amounts could increase if there was a reduction in ICBM or SLBM.
1979 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty II
An agreement between the US and USSR which put a limit on offensive weapons systems and strategic systems. A 2,400 limit was put on amount of strategic nuclear weapon delivery vehicles, and a max of 1,320 was put on MIRVed ballistic missles. The U.S. voided the treaty in 1986.
1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF)
A treaty between the US and USSR which bans all intermediate range missiles (IRMs), short range missiles, and all associated facilities and equipment. On-site inspection is used to make sure that both countries are following the treaty.
1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty
An agreement between the US and USSR which limited the number of strategic nuclear delivery vehicles to 1,600. It also limited the number of warheads per country to 6,000; this treaty reduced the U.S.'s and Soviet's warheads by 15% and 25% respectively.
1993 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty II
This treaty is an agreement between the US and Russia which will further reduce the number of warheads by 5,000. Both sides must reduce their warheads by this amount by December 4, 2001.
1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)
An agreement signed by the US, CIS, UK, and 90 other countries which banned all nuclear tests above and below the Earth's surface. A worldwide monitoring system including 170 seismic stations checked for any signs of nuclear explosion. India was the only nuclear country that didn't sign; it has conducted five nuclear tests recently.
National Youth Administration: established by WPA to reduce competition for jobs by supporting education and training of youth
The US invasion was the prelude to the anticipated invasion of the Japanese home islands. The fighting here, in the spring of 1945, resulted in the highest casualties for the Japanese (100,000) and the Americans (50,000) of any fighting in the war. These numbers hastened the use of atomic bombs a few months later.
Attempts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport left-wing radicals, especially anarchists, from the United States. The raids and arrests occurred in November 1919 and January 1920 under the leadership of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer.
Site of Japanese surprise attack against US Navy that started active US involvement in WWII. On December 7, 1941, hundreds of Japanese fighters, bombers, and submarines attacked the US Naval base in Hawaii, killing over 3,000 sailors, soldiers, and civilians, in the attempt to deal a "knockout blow" against US Pacific fleet, and clear the way for the Japanese conquest of Asia. The U.S. was taken totally by surprise and suffered heavy casualties there and in the Philippines.
Plessy v Ferguson
Plessy was a white lawyer (7/8 white) hired by the blacks to defend them. Buys ticket on a remark, find out he is part black, kick him off the train. He won't leave. Court finds segregation as natural. This is indispensable because the government claimed that segregation was allowed as long as everything was equal.
Policies of Harding and Coolidge
Return to 'Normalcy'
Warren G. Harding won the election of 1920 by a landslide on the promise of a "return to normalcy"—which, for Republicans in the 1920s, meant a return to big business. In addition to its pro-business stance, Harding's administration was known primarily for its corruption, exposed fully after Harding's death in office in 1923. Many officials were forced from office, and some narrowly escaped prison time. The most prominent scandal, the Teapot Dome scandal, involved Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall secretly leasing government oil reserves to two businessmen and accepting about $400,000 in return.
Harding's vice president, Calvin Coolidge, became president upon Harding's death in 1923 and was then elected himself in 1924. In contrast to his predecessor, Coolidge ran a relatively scandal-free White House. Staunchly pro-business, Coolidge opposed government regulation of, or interference with, the economy.
The lack of basic human needs, such as clean water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter, because of the inability to afford them.
Presidential Power in times of crisis (FDR, Vietnam)
a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages; "in 1920 the 18th amendment to the Constitution established prohibition in the US"
the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment
important form of mass media in the 1920s; shows, music, and news became family activities
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Created in 1932 during the administration of Herbert Hoover to make loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads, it was intended to provide emergency funds to help businesses overcome the effects of the Depression. It was later used to finance wartime projects during WW II.
Red Scare I
1919-1920 was marked by a widespread fear of Bolshevism and anarchism. Concerns over the effects of radical political agitation in American society and alleged spread in the American labor movement fueled the paranoia that defined the period.
This had its origins in the hyper-nationalism of World War I. At the war's end, following the Bolshevik revolution in Russia, American authorities saw the threat of revolution in the actions of organized labor, including such disparate cases as the Seattle General Strike and the Boston Police Strike and then in the bomb campaign directed by anarchist groups at political and business leaders. Fueled by labor unrest and the anarchist bombings, and then spurred on by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer's attempt to suppress radical organizations, it was characterized by exaggerated rhetoric, illegal search and seizures, unwarranted arrests and detentions, and the deportation of several hundred suspected radicals and anarchists.
Regents of the University of CA v Bakke
A landmark decision of the Supreme Court of the United States that ruled unconstitutional the admission process of the Medical School at the University of California at Davis, which set aside 16 of the 100 seats for non-white students.
Role of Churches during Civil Rights
During the African-American Civil Rights Movement, it was the black churches that held the leadership role. Black churches were the main points of operations in regards to the Civil Rights Movement. One example would be the late Civil Rights leader, Reverend and Doctor Martin Luther King Jr. Rev. Martin Luther King was a Baptist minister. Church leadership was one of the few positions of leadership available. Martin Luther King had taken full advantage of his position as minister to help spark the flames of the Civil Rights Movement.
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national Civil Rights movement
Securities and Exchange Commision required companies to publish important facts about their business. It also regulated the activities of stockbrokers and others in the investment business.
Selective Service Act
Passed in May 1917, an act that established the draft and eventually led to all males between the ages of 18-45 registering. It was challenged in the Supreme Court and upheld.
An acute contagious viral disease, with fever and pustules usually leaving permanent scars. It was effectively eradicated through vaccination by 1979.
A federal insurance program that provides benefits to retired people and those who are unemployed or disabled.
Nasser took over the corrupt government of Egypt, helped out the economy and accepted aid from the United States. He then purchased weapons from communist countries, making America distrustful.
Sunbelt & Rustbelt
The southern US from California to Florida, noted for the movement of businesses and population into these states from the colder northern states
The Rust Belt, also known as the Manufacturing Belt or The Factory Belt, is an area in parts of the Northeastern United States, Mid-Atlantic States, and portions of the eastern Midwest. These areas are where factories closed (especially the steel factories).
Supreme Court rulings
Brown vs. Board/Brown II - 1954. Overturned separate but equal; later stated that schools must be integrated "with all deliberate speed".
Buckley vs. Valeo - It is constitutional to limit campaign contributions but not constitutional to limit campaign spending or personal contributions.
Escobedo vs. Illionis - 1964. accused person has a right to have a lawyer present during questioning by police.
Engel vs. Vitale - 1962. It is unconstitutional for public schools to encourage prayer or other religious activity because such action violates the separation of church and state.
Gideon vs. Wainwright - 1962. A fair trial requires lawyers, therefore the state must provide a lawyer for the defendant if need be.
Gitlow vs. New York - 1925. Does the New York law punishing the advocacy of overthrowing the government an unconstitutional violation of the free speech clause of the First Amendment? No.
Korematsu vs. US - 1944. Supported the internment of Japanese Americans as a necessary and constitutional measure.
Miranda vs. Arizona - 1966. The police must notify a person of their constitutional rights when making an arrest.
Morgan vs. Virgina - 1946. state laws mandating segragated seating on interstate buses are unconstitutional.
Plessy vs. Ferguson - 1892. Established separate but equal doctrine.
Regents vs. Bakke - Racial quotas used at schools violated the 14th amendment.
Roe vs. Wade - Abortion rights were protected under the 14th amendment and Griswold vs. CT.
Schenck vs. US - 1919. The Espionage Act was a reasonable limitation of freedom of speech during wartime (Were Schenck's political statements protected? No.)
Sweatt vs. Painter - 1950. state law schools must admit black applicants
Tinker vs. De Moines School District - 1969. The First Amendment, as applied through the Fourteenth: a school can't punish students for peaceful symbolic speech.
Wisconsin vs. Yoder - 1972. Free exercise of religion is more important than the state's demand that children go to school until they are 16.
........also review your notes
A United States federal law that monitors the activities and power of labor unions.
The act, still effective, was sponsored by Senator Robert Taft and Representative Fred A. Hartley, Jr. and became law by overriding U.S. President Harry S. Truman's veto on June 23, 1947; labor leaders called it the "slave-labor bill" while President Truman argued that it was a "dangerous intrusion on free speech," and that it would "conflict with important principles of our democratic society," Nevertheless, Truman would subsequently use it twelve times during his presidency.
By the end of the '50s, 46 million homes had one; this was a major advancement for advertisements as well. Used during elections
An American jurist and the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States.
The principle that the US should give support to countries or peoples threatened by Soviet forces or communist insurrection. First expressed in 1947 by US President Truman in a speech to Congress seeking aid for Greece and Turkey, seen by the communists as an open declaration of the Cold War
A group of African American pilots who fought in World War II.
The Tennessee Valley Authority federation was created in 1933 in order to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression
United Farm Workers
A labor union created from the merging of two groups, the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC) led by Filipino organizer Larry Itliong, and the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) led by Cesar Chavez.
An international organization of countries set up in 1945, in succession to the League of Nations, to promote international peace, security, and cooperation
US opposition to League of Nations
isolationism; fear of becoming dependent on other nations or being involved in another overseas war.
A war between communist North Vietnam and US-backed South Vietnam
The US policy of withdrawing its troops and transferring the responsibility and direction of the war effort to the government of South Vietnam
Voting Rights Act 1965
Passed under LBJ it mandated federal oversight of local elections in the South, and promised to strengthen the ongoing effort to end racial discrimination in political life.
In the 1970's 5 men were found going through the democratic rooms of this hotel. One was a part of Nixon's reelection committee. They had cash and surveillance equipment on them. The senate votes to investigate this when enough evidence comes about. Many of the players in the scandal are asked by Nixon to resign their positions. At first they say no. then they have to. Alexander Butterfield, Nixon's secretary, let's slouch that Nixon records all of his conversations. They eventually catch the tapes and shows Nixon as a dreadful guy. Nixon resigns before he is impeached.
White Collar and Blue Collar
White Collar - business people
The term white-collar worker refers to a salaried professional or an educated worker who performs semi-professional office, administrative, and sales coordination tasks, as opposed to a blue-collar worker, whose job requires manual labor.
Blue Collar - industrial workers
A blue-collar worker is a member of the working class who typically performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage. Blue-collar workers are distinguished from those in the service sector and from white-collar workers, whose jobs are not considered manual labor.
Work Progress Administration:In the 1930's artistic and intellectual works. Pump money into economy by hiring people for jobs that will benefit the US. 300 million dollars for programs for artists. Concerts and pictures paid for by the government. Artists, Theaters, and Musicians- theaters with unemployed actors. WPA Histories of Slavery- history from slave themselves. Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
Yalta and Potsdam Conferences
(a conference held in Yalta in February 1945 where Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill planned the final stages of World War II and agreed to the territorial division of Europe)
(1940s) Truman casually mentions atomic bomb to Stalin. On 16 July 1945, the "Big Three" leaders met at Potsdam, Germany, near Berlin. In this, the last of the World War II heads of state conferences, President Truman, Soviet Premier Stalin and British Prime Ministers Churchill and Atlee discussed post-war arrangements in Europe, frequently without agreement. Future moves in the war against Japan were also covered.
Zora Neale Hurston
An American folklorist, anthropologist, and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance.