Which of the following areas of study focuses on the exchange of energy, organisms, and materials between ecosystems?
A) population ecology
B) organismal ecology
C) landscape ecology
D) ecosystem ecology
E) community ecology
C. Landscape ecology
Which of the following statements is consistent with the principle of competitive exclusion?
A) Bird species generally do not compete for nesting sites.
B) The density of one competing species will have a positive impact on the population growth of
the other competing species.
C) Two species with the same fundamental niche will exclude other competing species.
D) Even a slight reproductive advantage will eventually lead to the elimination of the less well
adapted of two competing species.
E) Evolution tends to increase competition between related species.
D. Even a slight reproductive advantage will eventually lead to the elimination of the less well adapted of two competing species
Which of the following is an example of cryptic coloration?
A) bands on a coral snake
B) brown color of tree bark
C) markings of a viceroy butterfly
D) colors of an insect-pollinated flower
E) a "walking stick" insect that resembles a twig
E. a "walking stick" insect that resembles a twig
Which of the following is an example of Müllerian mimicry?
A) two species of unpalatable butterfly that have the same color pattern
B) two species of moths with wing spots that look like owl's eyes
C) a chameleon that changes its color to look like a dead leaf
D) two species of rattlesnakes that both rattle their tails
A. two species of unpalatable butterfly that have the same color pattern
Dwarf mistletoes are flowering plants that grow on certain forest trees. They obtain nutrients and water from the vascular tissues of the trees. The trees derive no known benefits from the dwarf mistletoes. Which of the following best describes the interactions between dwarf mistletoes and trees?
Which of the following types of species interaction is correctly paired with its effects on the density of the two interacting populations?
A) predation: as one increases, the other increases
B) parasitism: both decrease
C) commensalism: as one increases the other stays the same
D) mutualism: both decrease
E) competition: both increase
C. commensalism: as one increases the other stays the same
Which of the following examples best describes an ecological community?
A) The intraspecific competition of members of a brook trout population inhabiting a stream during a given year.
B) The interactions of all the plant and animal species inhabiting a 2 hectare forest.
C) The material cycling and energy transformations between the biotic and abiotic components of an open meadow.
D) The various species of barnacles competing for resources in an intertidal zone.
E) The interactions of the various plant and animal species of park, excepting the decomposers
B or D
The species richness of a community refers to the
A) complexity of the food web.
B) number of different species.
C) the bottom-heavy shape of the energy pyramid.
D) relative numbers of individuals in each species.
E) total number of all organisms
B. the number of different species
Which of the following members of a marine food chain occupies a similar tropic level to a grasshopper in a terrestrial food chain?
D) sea lion
In a tide pool, 15 species of invertebrates were reduced to eight after one species was removed. The species removed was likely a(n)
A) community facilitator.
B) keystone species.
D) resource partitioner.
E) mutualistic organism.
B. Keystone species
Which of the following is an example of an ecosystem?
A) All of the brook trout in a 500 hectare2 river drainage system.
B) The plants, animals, and decomposers that inhabit an alpine meadow.
C) A pond and all of the plant and animal species that live in it.
D) The intricate interactions of the various plant and animal species on a savanna during a drought.
E) Interactions between all of the organisms and their physical environment in a tropical rain forest.
E. interactions between all of the organisms and their physical environment in a tropical rain forest.
If the Sun were to suddenly stop providing energy to Earth, most ecosystems would vanish. Which of the following ecosystems would likely survive the longest after this hypothetical disaster?
A) tropical rainforest B) tundra C) benthic ocean
D) grassland E) desert
C. Benthic ocean
The producers in aquatic ecosystems include organisms in which of the following groups?
A) cyanobacteria B) algae C) plants D) photoautotrophs
E) A, B, C, and D are all correct
E. A, B, C, and D are all correct.
Which of these ecosystems has the highest net primary productivity per square meter?
A) savanna B) open ocean C) boreal forest D) tropical rain forest E) temperate forest
D. tropical rain forest
In general, the total biomass in a terrestrial ecosystem will be greatest for which trophic level?
A) producers B) herbivores C) primary consumers D) tertiary consumers E) secondary consumers
Which of the following organisms is incorrectly paired with its trophic level?
A) cyanobacteriumprimary producer B) grasshopperprimary consumer
C) zooplanktonprimary producer D) eagletertiary consumer
C. Zooplankton primary producer
Nitrifying bacteria participate in the nitrogen cycle mainly by
A) converting nitrogen gas to ammonia.
B) releasing ammonium from organic compounds, thus returning it to the soil.
C) converting ammonia to nitrogen gas, which returns to the atmosphere.
D) converting ammonium to nitrate, which plants absorb.
E) incorporating nitrogen into amino acids and organic compounds
D. converting ammonium to nitrate, which plants absorb.
Which of the following would be considered an example of bioremediation?
A) adding nitrogen-fixing microorganisms to a degraded ecosystem to increase nitrogen availability
B) using a bulldozer to regrade a strip mine
C) identifying a new biodiversity hot spot
D) reconfiguring the channel of a river
E) adding seeds of a chromium-accumulating plant to soil contaminated by chromium
A. adding nitrogen-fixing microorganims to a degraded ecosystem to increase nitrogen availability
Keystone predators can maintain species diversity in a community if they prey on the community's dominant species
The principle of competitive exclusion states that two species cannot coexist in the same habitat
Matter is cycled through and ecosystems, energy is not
The main reservoir for nitrogen is the atmosphere