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separatist

Separatist Puritans considered every church a distinct unit independent of all outside control. This meant they considered outside bodies such as synods, presbyteries, and the hierarchical clergy as unscriptural and unnecessary. Separatists refused to recognize congregations subservient to outside organizations as "true churches." Anglicanism could not be a form of the "true church." Therefore, genuine Christians should withdraw from Anglicans at all costs.

non separatist

Nonseparatist Puritans agreed with Separatists on the necessity of restricting church membership to proven saints. However, they did not condemn the Church of England. They contended that true Christians could and did remain in the Church of England in spite of its unscriptural practices. Furthermore, they believed Christians always existed within the church regardless of the form it took. Nonseparatists hoped to bring about change from within the established church. Separating from the Anglicans would frustrate that goal.

church of england

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quakers

Quakers, or Friends, are members of the Religious Society of Friends, or Friends' Church, an international religious movement which focuses on the priesthood of all believers.[citation needed] Most Quakers regard themselves as Christians, and include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity.[citation needed] There are also two distinct groups of Friends who emerged in the late twentieth century known as nontheist Friends and universalist Friends who do not regard themselves as Christian.

great migration

Movement of nearly half a million blacks from the rural South to industrial cities of the North.

holy experiment

of religious diversity was at the core of William Penn's vision for a colony in America. As such, the colony of Pennsylvania represented a "holy experiment" for Penn. He encouraged people of all faiths to live together in harmony and to maintain harmonious relations with Native Americans in the region. The residents of early Pennsylvania never fully embraced Penn's vision, but the colony was open to religious dissenters and became a model for the diversity that later characterized America.

bacon's rebellion

Bacon's Rebellion was an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony in North America, led by a 29-year-old planter, Nathaniel Bacon.

new england confederation

The United Colonies of New England, commonly known as the New England Confederation, was a short-lived military alliance of the English colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven. Established in 1643, its primary purpose was to unite the Puritan colonies against the Native Americans. It was established as a direct result of a war that started between the Mohegan and Narragansetts. Its charter provided for the return of fugitive criminals and indentured servants, and served as a forum for resolving inter-colonial disputes. In practice, none of the goals were accomplished.[1]

puritans

The Puritans were a significant grouping of English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries, including, but not limited to, English Calvinists. Puritanism in this sense was founded by some Marian exiles from the clergy shortly after the accession of Elizabeth I of England in 1558, as an activist movement within the Church of England. The designation "Puritan" is often incorrectly used, notably based on the assumption that hedonism and puritanism are antonyms:[1] Historically, the word was used pejoratively to characterize the Protestant group as extremists similar to the Cathari of France, and according to Thomas Fuller in his Church History dated back to 1564, Archbishop Matthew Parker of that time used it and "precisian" with the sense of modern "stickler".[2]

pueblo revolt

The Pueblo Revolt of 1680, or Popé's Rebellion, was an uprising of several pueblos of the Pueblo people against Spanish colonization of the Americas in the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.[1]

act of toleration

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headright system

Grants of land donated to new settlers in the Chesapeake by the Virginia Company and the Lords Baltimore.

salem

Outbreak of widespread hysteria that resulted in the execution of nineteen people.

halfway convenant

Realizing that many children of the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first generation were not actively seeking God's saving grace and full church membership, the question was how to keep the next generation of children active in church affairs. The solution, agreed to in 1662, was to permit the baptism of children and grandchildren of professing saints, thereby according them half‑way membership. Full church membership still would come only after individuals testified to a conversion experience. This compromise on standards of membership was seen as a sign of declension.

Virginia company

The Virginia Company refers collectively to a pair of English joint stock companies chartered by James I on 10 April 1606[1][2][3] with the purposes of establishing settlements on the coast of North America.[4] The two companies, called the "Virginia Company of London" (or the London Company) and the "Virginia Company of Plymouth" (or Plymouth Company) operated with identical charters but with differing territories. An area of overlapping territory was created within which the two companies were not permitted to establish colonies within one hundred miles of each other. The Plymouth Company never fulfilled its charter, and its territory that later became New England was at that time also claimed by England.
The charters of the companies called for a local council for each, but with ultimate authority residing with the King through the Council of Virginia[5] in England.

encomienda

The Spanish right to exact tribute and labor from Native Americans on large tracts of land, granted by Don Juan de Onate to favored Spaniards in what would become the American Southwest.

john winthrop

John Winthrop (12 January 1587/8[1] - 26 March 1649) was a wealthy English Puritan lawyer and one of the leading figures in the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the first major settlement in New England after Plymouth Colony. Winthrop led the first large wave of migrants from England in 1630, and served as governor for 12 of the colony's first 20 years of existence. His writings and vision of the colony as a Puritan "city upon a hill" dominated New England colonial development, influencing the government and religion of neighboring colonies.

roger williams

Salem minister who was exiled from Massachusetts and came to found Rhode Island.

anne hutchinson

Boston woman who preached the Antinomian Heresy and was banished from Massachusetts.

lord baltimore

When Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, created the colony of Maryland, he formed it based on the ideas of freedom of religion and separation of church and state. Maryland, in fact, became known as a haven for Roman Catholics in the New World. Cecil governed Maryland for forty-two years.

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