Friedman and Adler (2007)
Health psychology "the scientific study of psychological processes related to health and health care.
studied how some people stayed healthy despite being under extreme stressors, the idea came from researching problems of Israeli women during menopause, these women were in concentration camps but were still happy
Holmes-Rahe Scale (1967)
compares events as stressors and how long it takes to readjust from them.
stress arises when people perceive a discrepancy between the demands of a situation and their perception of their own resources.
Steptow and Marmot (2003)
Steptoe and Marmot conducted a survey on the interaction of social, psychological and physiological aspects of stress.
The physiological changes of the sympathetic nervous system prepare the individual to either confront or escape from the source of stress "fight or flight"
Hans Selye (1956)
Psychologist described General Adaptation Syndrome (stress)
-All prolonged stressors take us through 3 stages of adaptation: Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion
Keicolt-Glaser et al. (1984)
High stress diminishes the effects of the immune system.
Reed et al. (1999)
HIV-positive people who have more pessimistic expectations develop HIV-related symptoms more quickly and die of AIDS sooner
Kemeny et al. (2006)
threats to one's "social self" (social esteem and status) are associated with specific negative cognitive and affective responses such as shame and humiliation.
Kamen and Seligman (1987)
.. pessimistic expectation may simply lead to people giving up, and this influences the immune system
Kemeny et al. (2005)
attributional style, like having a pessimistic or optimistic approach to life could predict poor health later in life. Pessimism may be related to health through a decrease in T-cells and suppression of the immune system.
Smith et al. (1992)
Adults whose interpersonal interactions were marked by hostility and cynicism were less likely to report having social support
Lazarus and Folkman (1975)
Transactional model of stress-based on the assumption that stress involves transaction between an individual and the external world. Only if the event is perceived as stressful could a stress response be elicited.
Folkman and Lazarus (1988)
suggested two main coping strategies. Problem-focused coping which deals with the stressor, and emotion-focused coping which deals with a way to handle the stressor
it's difficult to make a clear distinction between the two ways of coping. Problem-focused- person feels like they can control it results in reduction of unpleasant emotions (long term) emotion-focused little control over and short term stress reduction (alcoholism)
- There should be data guided decision making
- All parties are involved in school reform
found that women were more involved than men in both giving and receiving social support.
found that adult women maintained more same-sex close relationships than me and mobilized more social support in times of stress than men. More benefit from contacts with their female friends and relatives, and they provided more social support themselves than men do.
meta-analysis of research of stress and coping- there is a gender difference in relation to social support. "tend and befriend" for women. Males have more of a "fight of flight"
Kessler et al. (1997)
in the US, about 25 million people participate in support groups at some point in their life
Klemm et al, (1999)
conducted a content analysis of postings of various Internet-based cancer support groups. Found that the most common postings were seeking information, and giving info, encouragement, and support. Women were 2x more likely to give support men were 2x likely to give info. (prostate and breast cancers)
Wenzelberg et al. (2003)
randomized controlled experiment, which was aimed at evaluating the beneficial effects of online support groups 72 women diagnosed with breast cancer. 12 week web based social support group. Psychoeducation/therapy. The program was moderately effective in reducing participants scores on perceived stress and depression.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)- relaxation technique in stress reduction. Developed by Kabat-Zinn 1979. Involves training in meditation and cultivating "mindfulness" or awareness that emerges through paying attention, on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally to the unfolding of experience moment by moment.
Shapiro et al. (1998)
have shown that MBSR is effective in stress reduction.
Speca et al. (2000)
performed a controlled test with sample of cancer patients. MBSR course. Experimental group showed a reduction in total mood disturbance of 65 percent. A 35 percent reduction in stress symptoms. Time spent meditating was positively correlated with improvements in mood.
Difranza et al. (2006)
longitudinal study of 217 adolescents having inhaled a cigarette once. Completed psychological evaluations. Adolescents who had an immediate experience of relaxation were more likely to become addicted. 67 recalled relaxation 29 percent didn't. 91 percent of relaxation could't quit. Takes far less time to become addicted than originally though.
young smokers associated smoking with dun and pleasure.
Advertising agencies know that manipulating cognitions is a powerful tool, because people's self-image and beliefs are important.
It takes individuals out of their social context, and a person's behavior and beliefs are developed through interaction with the social world. Smoking is learned
Lader and Matheson (1991)
children are twice as likely to smoke if their father smoked.
Unger et al. (2001)
peer-group pressure, a source of social identity and learning social norms may include smoking.
Charlton et al. (1997)
boys who showed a preference for Formula One motor racing that was sponsored by cigarette manufacturers were more likely to begin smoking
studied research on the effect of interventions at the individual level. The most efficient methods are those that include consultations and participation in smoking cessation interventions. And drugs in combination with interventions
Olsen et al. (2006)
studied effectiveness of standard smoking cessation interventions in real life situations. The health staff were highly trained. Strengths- large sample and the population-based real-life setting. Weaknesses- the lack of a control group and loss of data, large drop-out of participants during the program.
Stunkard et al. (1990)
studied 93 pairs of identical twins raised apart. Compared their BMIs genetic factors accounted for 66-70 percent of the variance in their body weight. Role in genetic factor still isn't very clear. Amount of fat cells.
the current obesity epidemic is caused by environmental factors. Two main factors are lack of physical activity and eating behavior.
Lakdawall and Philipson (2002)
60 percent of the total growth in weight is due to decrease in physical activity and 40 percent is due to caloric intake (Lakdawalla and Philipson 2002)
Prentice and Jebb (1995)
who found that the population data did not show an obvious relationship between the increase in obesity and changes in food intake
Blundel et al. (1997)
found that high fat eaters (more than 45% of their energy came from fat) were 19x more likely to be obese than those who got less than 35%. Fat is more likely to be stored.
the health gap between people in difference socioeconomic groups if widening. People with higher educations are healthier.
Chou et al. (2004)
found that wealthier and more educated individuals are less likely to have obesity problems compared to those of lower socio-economic status
Forslund et al. (2005)
cross-sectional study with 22 medical centers in Sweden to see how snacking influences weight. Used self-reports to compare energy intake of 4259 obese men and women with 1095 controls. Energy intake was more likely to come from sweet fatty food choices in obese frequent snackers. Weakness- these were obese patients that wanted to lose weight. Could've been reporting unusual eating habits
having a slim body demonstrates control. And the fat body thus becomes a sign of the opposite. Body shape attitudes are influenced by cultural norms, and dissatisfaction with body shape is an important incentive to diet.
false hope syndrome- restraint theory predicts that cognitive restraint responds to external cues, or emotional events with a "loss of control"- unrealistic and overly optimistic
The following is a treatment program in Australia (Blair-West 2007)
1) Realistic goal-setting- focus on long-term weight loss and maintenance rather than achieving short-term weight loss
2) Low-sacrifice diet- eat less but still indulge every now and then.
3) Physical activity- exercise!
4) Information- about dangers of obesity and health benefits of losing weight.
Stahre et al. (2007)
Cognitive behavioral therapy seems to be efficient. And it is also cost-effective
carried out a review of studies using randomized control trails to examine effectiveness of moderate and severe caloric restriction on weight loss. Patients stay in treatment for 20 weeks and 50 percent lose 9kg or more. The most obese patients treated in research tend to regain their weight. Weight gain after treatment was the norm.
Berkowitz et al. (2006)
carried out randomized trial with a sample of adolescent boys and girls to investigate if the appetite-suppressant drug sibutramine reduced weight more than a placebo in obese adolescents. Longitudinal study.
Maggard et al. (2005)
meta-analysis of the effectiveness associated with surgical treatments of obesity based of 147 studies. Surgery resulted in more weight loss for longer times. Gastric bypass was ore efficient overall than gastric banding.
The health belief model (HBM)
Originally developed by Rosenstock (1974) one of the oldest social cognition models.
Predicts whether a person will choose to engage in healthy behaviors in order to reduce or prevent the chance of disease and premature death.
Quist-Paulsen et al. (2003)
concluded a field experiment in which they investigated patients who had been treated for heart problems. Encouraged cessation. 57 % of the intervention group and 37% of the control group had stopped smoking. The program based on fear arousal and relapse prevention was effective for the group of patients.
The Health Belief Model can identify some of the important cognitions involved in health behaviors. It includes self-efficacy beliefs. Bandura (1977) self-efficacy beliefs are important predictors of what people believe they are capable of.
asked people to rate their risk of developing various disorders compared to people like them. Individuals rate their chances of illness as lower than for other people. Factors affect "unrealistic optimism".
Theory of cognitive dissonance based on the assumption that people try to appear rational to themselves and others.
McMasters and Lee (1991)
investigated the knowledge and beliefs of smokers. The groups of non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers had a similar amount of factual knowledge about the effects of smoking.
Prochaska et al. (1982)
investigated 872 smokers who had given up smoking either by themselves or after a therapeutic intervention. Identified five stages of change 1) precontemplation 2) contemplation 3) preparation 4) action 5) maintenance
Hawkins et al. (2001)
used the stages of change model to investigate prediction of weight loss in a sample of 200 african american women living in two rural countries in virginia. 142/200 women were obese. Knowledge of what friends think about weight loss in a positive light can be useful in designing health education initiatives and encouraging social support in weight-loss interventions.
West and Sohal (2006)
Challenged stages of change model. Cross-sectional survey with smokers.
defined health promotion as "the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health"
Yee et al. (2006)
investigated how 20 states in the US had implemented evidence-based health-promotion strategies to change or influence behaviors related to obesity nutrition, and physical activity. Supports that health promotion is now often based on research findings.
media campaigns can only convey simple messages. Change attitudes.
Sly et al. (2002)
Survey after 22 moths after anti-tobacco campaign. The amount of exposure to ads with a key message theme during the campaign predicted that the person had remained a non-smoker. It's possible to change people's attitudes and behavior if the campaign is clear and focused on a target group.