Amsco AP US History Chapter 25

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Stimson Doctrine

1932, Hoover's Secretary of State said the US would not recognize territorial changes resulting from Japan's invasion of Manchuria. The United States would not recognize Manchukuo as a country

good-neighbor policy

Franklin Roosevelt described his foreign policy as that of a "good neighbor." The phrase came to be used to describe the U.S. attitude toward the countries of Latin America. Under Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy," the U.S. took the lead in promoting good will among these nations. Roosevelt wanted Latin America's cooperation in defending the region from potential danger.

Tydings-McDuffie Act

1934-provided for the independence of the Philippines by 1946 and the gradual removal of US ammilitary presence for the islands. In 1935, the Philippines people elected a presidnet under a new constitution.

Nye Committee

1934. Senate committee led by South Dakota Senator Gerald Nye to investigate why America became involved in WWI. Theory that big business had conspired to have America enter WWI so that they could make money selling war materials. Called bankers and arms producers "merchants of death."

Neutrality acts

1935-Authorized the president to prohibit all arms shipments and to forbid US citizens to travel on the ships of belligerent nations
1936-Forbade extension of loans and creditis to belligerents
1937-Forbade shipment of arms to the opposing sides in the civil war in Spain

America First Committee

A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.

appeasement

The making of concessions to an aggressor in order to avoid war; in WWII, Ethiopia, Rhineland, China, and the Sudenland were taken by totalitarian countries (Italy, Germany, Japan) and US, Britain, and others adopted a policy of appeasement, hoping to avoid a war.

quarantine speech

1937 - In this speech Franklin D. Roosevelt compared Fascist agression to a contagious disease, saying democracies must unite to quarantine agressor nations (Japan that had recently attacked China). Public response was very negative and FDR backed off.

cash and carry

Policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them on their own ships.

Selective Training and Service Act

Selective Training and Service Act of September 1940 provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 35 (conscription) and for the training of 1.2 million troops in just one year.

destroyers-for-bases deal

Roosevelt's compromise for helping Britain as he could not sell Britain US destroyers without defying the Neutrality Act; Britain received 50 old but still serviceable US destroyers in exchange for giving the US the right to build military bases on British Islands in the Caribbean. (1940)

four freedoms speech

A speech that proposed lending money to Britain for the purchase of US war materials and justified such a policy because it was a defense of "four freedoms." (freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from fear, freedom from want) Addressed to the Congress on January 6, 1941.

Wendell Willkie

Election of 1940-Republican canidate who ran against FDR, he was a lawyer and utility executive. Criticized FDR's New Deal, but largely agreed with his war policies such as preparedness and aiding Britain short of entering the war. Strongest criticism of FDR was his running for a 3rd term.

Lend-Lease Act

Approve by Congress in March 1941; This act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States." (like lending a neighbor a garden hose to put out a fire)

Atlantic Charter

1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII and to work for peace after the war (self-determination, free trade)

OPA

The Office of Price Administration, a New Deal organization created to control prices after the outbreak of WWII to control inflation and stabilize prices. It also had the power to ration scarce goods such as tires, automobiles, shoes, sugar, and gasoline among other things. It was abolished in 1947.

Smith v Allwright

A supreme court case in 1944 that ruled that it was unconstitutional to deny membership in political parties to African Americans as a way of excluding them from voting in primaries.

Korematsu v US

1944 Supreme Court case in which the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor

D Day

June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

Battle of the Bulge

December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.

Battle of Midway

U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers and 300 planes due to the decoding of Japanese messages by the US. It marked a turning point in World War II.

Chester Nimitz

Commander of the U.S. naval forces in the Pacific and brilliant strategist of the "island hopping" campaign

Douglas MacArthur

Commanded Allied troops in the Pacific during World War II. He was forced to surrender the Philippines in 1941 and was thereafter obsessed with its recapture, which he accomplished in 1944. He later commanded the American occupation of Japan and United Nations troops in the Korean War.

Manhattan Project

Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States. Employeed 100,000+ people and cost 2 billion. 1st successful bomb tested July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, New Mexico

J. Robert Oppenheimer

Led the Manhattan Project: the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear bomb. He was remembered as the "Father of the Atomic Bomb."

Big Three

allies during WWII; Soviet Union - Stalin, United Kingdom - Churchill, United States - Roosevelt

Yalta

1945 conference in which the Big 3 met and decided
1) Germany would be divided into occupational zones
2) there would be free elections in the newly liberated Eastern European countries
3) Soviets would enter war against Japan (entered Aug 8th 1945, just as Japan was about to surrender)
4) Soviets would control southern half of Sakhalin island and the Kurile Islands in the Pacific, and have special concessions in Manchuria
5) United Nations would be formed

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