Applied psychology Test 2

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____ 1. Love as the basis for marriage is

an 18th-century invention of Western culture

____ 2. Which of the following statements about the role of physical attractiveness in relationships is not true?

Both genders rate physical attractiveness of a potential mate higher than personal qualities such as kindness and warmth

According to the matching hypothesis,

people of similar levels of physical attractiveness gravitate toward each other.

The research on similarity seems to show that married and dating couples

tend to be similar on most important attributes.

If you want to have a friend, be a friend. This statement is most consistent with which of the following concepts?

reciprocity

Encouraging your partner to disclose his or her thoughts and feelings to you illustrates which of the following relationship maintenance strategies?

openness

According to interdependence theory, what constitutes an acceptable balance of rewards and costs in a relationship is

determined by Skinner's principle of reinforcement.

Studies indicate that the most important element of friendship is

generosity

Women's friendships tend to focus on

talking and emotional intimacy.

Research evidence suggests that

men are more romantic than women.

Which of the following is not one of the components in Robert Sternberg's triangular theory of love?

sexuality

According to Sternberg's triangular theory of love, the combination of intimacy and passion produces

romantic love.

Cindy Hazan and Phillip Shaver suggested that patterns of adult romantic love are related to

attachment relationships in infancy.

The tendency to attribute one's own behavior to situational factors and others' behavior to personal factors is called

the actor-observer effect.

Which of the following is a personal consequence associated with chronic loneliness?

all of these

Role expectations for husbands and wives are becoming

more varied and flexible

Which of the following is the main reason most people get married?

the desire to participate in a socially sanctioned, mutually rewarding, intimate relationship

Endogamy refers to the tendency of people to marry someone who

comes from one's own social group

In assessing a potential mate, women place a higher value than men on all but which of the following?

youthfulness

On reaching Murstein's second stage of mate selection (the "value" stage), couples begin to

explore each other's attitudes about such things as religion, politics, and gender role.

Couples who have high levels of intimacy, closeness, and commitment prior to the birth of the first child

maintain a high level of satisfaction after the birth of a child

Parents overwhelmingly rate ____ as the most difficult stage of parenting.

adolescence

Conflict between adolescent children and their parents is most likely to involve which of the following issues?

the kinds of clothes the adolescent wears

Research on maternal employment indicates that

it is not harmful to the children.

After a divorce, children are likely to exhibit all but which of the following?

improved academic performance

Which of the following statements about remarriage is not true?

Divorce rates are lower for second than for first marriages.

In comparison to married people, single people

exhibit poorer physical and mental health.

Which the following statements about cohabitation is true?

The majority of cohabitants plan to marry eventually

The majority of homosexual men and women prefer

a stable, long-term relationship.

Which of the following is considered a "date rape drug"?

rohypnol

Which of the following statements regarding gender differences in verbal abilities is accurate?

Girls usually start speaking earlier than boys

Research findings indicate that with respect to aggressive behavior

males engage in more physical aggression

Regarding gender differences in communication, it has been found that

women tend to speak more tentatively

The overall incidence of mental disorders indicates that

it is roughly the same for both genders.

Which of the following disorders is more common in men than in women?

alcoholism

Evolutionary psychologists explain social behaviors such as aggression and mating patterns in terms of different ____ pressures operating on the genders over the course of human history.

natural selection

The notion that cerebral specialization is linked to gender differences in mental abilities

is still under debate

Gender-role socialization occurs through

self-socialization.

Between the ages of four and six, children tend to separate into

same-gender groups

The intense fear and intolerance of homosexuality is

termed homophobia

Heterosexual success refers to

women learning how to attract and interest males as prospective mates.

An androgynous person is one who

scores above average on measures of both masculinity and femininity.

Sandra Bem suggests that androgynous people are

psychologically healthier than those who are gender-typed.

When Deborah Tannen says that males and females are socialized in different "cultures," she means that

males learn status and independence, while females learn connection and intimacy.

Tannen suggests that many frustrations could be avoided if

men and women were more aware of gender-based differences in communication style.

Occupational interest inventories

are focused more on job satisfaction than job success.

Which of the following statements regarding gender bias on occupational interest inventories is accurate?

Gender bias has been reduced, but it has not been eliminated

When making career choices, an important point to keep in mind is

career choice is a developmental process

According to John Holland's trait measurement and matching model of career development, which of the following personal orientations would be most compatible with a job as a nurse?

social

According to Donald Super, the critical factor that governs career development is one's

self-concept.

According to Super's developmental model of career choice, which of the following stages involves making a commitment to a specific job, and demonstrating the ability to function effectively in this job?

establishment stage

The career development of males and females is

different, in part, because women still subordinate their career goals to those of their husbands.

Which of the following statements regarding diversity in the workplace is not accurate?

Technically, job discrimination on the basis of race and gender is not illegal.

According to Robert Karasek, occupational stress is most likely to occur under which of the following conditions?

high psychological demands and low decision control

Interventions at the ____ are the most widely used strategy for managing work-related stress.

individual level

All but which of the following is a characteristic of the typical female victim of sexual harassment in the workplace?

married

Which of the following is not one of the results of unemployment discussed in your textbook?

All of these are possible results

Employees who lose their jobs because of downsizing - instead of poor job performance - are likely to believe they have been treated arbitrarily and unfairly - a situation found to be associated with an increase in

aggression

Research indicates that workaholism may be either constructive or problematic, depending on the

individual's enjoyment of the job.

Which of the following is not good advice for creating the right impression during a job interview?

Elevate your perceived worth by criticizing your previous employer.

Cultural views of love and marriage are linked to a culture's values and its

economic health

refers to geographic, residential, and other forms of spatial closeness

Proximity

One should be cautious in interpreting the results of surveys on the importance of physical attractiveness in romantic relationships because

people's verbal reports often do not match their true attitudes and behaviors

Which of the following facial features is most likely to be seen as attractive in men?

broad jaw

According to evolutionary psychologists, women seeking a prospective mate are likely to display the most interest in characteristics that denote a man's

capacity for resource acquisition.

The "similarity principle" tends to be found most frequently in

all of these

The idea that interpersonal relationships are governed by perceptions of rewards and costs is a key premise in

social exchange theory

n general, women's friendships are more likely to focus on ____, whereas men's friendships tend to be based on ____

emotional intimacy; shared interests

Most homosexual women prefer to call themselves

lesbians.

Susan and Manny's relationship is characterized by warmth, closeness, and sharing. Their relationship would be considered high in which of the following?

intimacy

According to Sternberg's triangular theory of love, companionate love can be divided into which of the following components?

commitment and intimacy

Hazan and Shaver found that, like infants in their attachment relationships, adults fall into the following three categories in their love relationships:

avoidant, anxious-ambivalent, secure

Which of the following is not considered a prominent factor contributing to the breakup of a romantic relationship?

incompatible attachment styles

For older individuals, social loneliness is most influenced by the ____ of friendship.

quality

Individuals who suffer from chronic loneliness are likely to have a self-defeating attributional style characterized by attributing their loneliness to

stable, internal causes

Juan and Dori recently got married. If current demographics continue, what is the likelihood they will get divorced or separated?

50

Endogamy refers to the tendency

of people to marry within their social group

Which of the following characteristics of potential mates is not valued equally by both sexes?

ambition

Jean is seeking a mate based on evolutionary theory. Her most primary, underlying concern will be to look for a male that is

likely to provide well for her children

Rosa and Garrett have started evaluating each other on their likelihood of making a good companion. They are likely in which of Murstein's stages?

role

Which of the following is associated with a higher probability of marital success?

conscientiousness

In which stage of the family life cycle is marital satisfaction likely to be the lowest?

families with school-aged children

Crisis during the transition to first parenthood is more likely for

females

Gender equality in marital chores is

notably increased

In order to develop his theory of the role of marital communication and risk factors for divorce, Gottman

studied over 50 couples using a combination of interview and observational techniques.

Available evidence indicates that remaining in an unhappy marriage tends to

be detrimental to one's adjustment.

Compared to married people, sexual relations among single people can be characterized as

less frequent and less satisfying

Research on satisfaction with one's life among single people indicates that single

women are more satisfied than single men

Bill is a gay male who was once married to a woman. Among his gay male friends, he finds about ____ percent of them share his former marriage status.

25%

Which of the following is most likely to be involved in a sexually aggressive incident?

alcohol

The fact that gender stereotypes view male behavior as normal reflects an ____ bias.

androcentric

Research on gender differences in mathematical ability indicates that

boys outperform girls in mathematical problem-solving when they reach high school.

A young girl is more likely than a young boy to engage in which of the following

behaviors?

spreading rumors about another child

Research indicates that about ____ will develop a psychological disorder at one time or another.

one out of every three people

According to ____, the tendency to look for gender differences, as well as our specific beliefs about gender, are rooted in the "gendered" messages and conditioning that are common in our socialization experiences.

social constructionism

The notion that cerebral specialization is linked to gender differences in mental abilities

is still under debate

Cultural expectations about what is appropriate for each gender are called

gender roles

Men seem to be experiencing a "masculinity-crisis" due to

shifting male gender roles.

Remaining cool and calm under pressure is characteristic of which of the following elements of the traditional male role?

the self-reliant element

The marriage and motherhood mandates fuel women's intense focus on ____, that is, learning how to attract and interest males as prospective mates

heterosexual success

Women are most likely to hold which of the following jobs?

kindergarten teacher

When Pat takes a personality inventory, the resulting scores on the subscales that measure masculinity and femininity are both low. This pattern of scoring is called

gender-role undifferentiated.

According to Deborah Tannen, communication between males and females is most similar to communication between which of the following?

different cultures

An ____ style of communication focuses on reaching practical goals and finding solutions to problems.

instrumental

Men are more likely to use a(n) ____ style of communication, and women are more likely to use a(n) ____ style.

instrumental; expressive

After you've read the available literature about an occupation, it's a good idea to talk to

individuals working in that area

Which of the following statements about vocational choice is not accurate?

There are no limits on your career options

According to Holland's hexagonal model of career choice, a philosophy professor would probably be considered ____ type

an investigative

According to Holland's model, people who like to use their social skills to persuade others, and who perceive themselves as self-confident, sociable, and popular, would most likely be considered as having the ____ personal orientation.

enterprising

Which of the following individuals proposed an influential developmental model of career choice?

Donald Super

Women's vocational development is different from men's primarily because

women often subordinate their career goals to those of their husbands

Leaving the labor force, even if for increasingly brief periods of time, is called

labor force discontinuity

In 1970 approximately ____ % of married women worked. While in 2003, approximately ____ % of married women worked.

40; 60

Jason, a minority group member, feels that his co-workers see him as a ____ worker; consequently his is likely to experience more ____ pressure than the typical white male.

token; performance

Which is not a common job stressor?

the monotony associated with regular hours

Jobs with ____ and ____ are considered the most stressful.

high psychological demands; low decision control

Maria is uncomfortable in her job as a policewoman because her coworkers tell crude sexual jokes and hang centerfold pinups in the break room at the station. She is experiencing

hostile environmental harassment.

Which of the following statements about workaholism is not true?

It is one of the most well-researched areas in I/O psychology.

Which leisure activity is negatively related to perceived well-being?

television viewing

A "headhunter" is a slang term for

an executive recruiter

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