feelings or ideas that cause to act toward a goal.
behavior motivated by biological needs. Need= food, water. Drive= hunger, thirst. Drive reducing behavior = eating, drinking. (Ex. Addict injects drug)
Drive Reduction Theory
our bodies seek a balanced internal state
biological needs like food
learned drives like $
suggests humans are motivated to seek the optimum level of arousal.
we perform better at easy tasks with a high level of arousal, we may perform worse on difficult tasks with a high level of arousal. (similar to social facilitation)
behavior is not pushed by a need; it is pulled by a desire.
Pyramid showing which needs must be met to go to the next level. Physiological needs (ex. food) at bottom, followed by safety needs, belongingness, esteem and self-actualization (reaching one's full potential) at top. The other needs must be met before one can self-actualize.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Washburn swallowed a balloon and determined that stomach contractions accompany our feelings of hunger
Washburn balloon experiment
makes us feel hungry when we need to eat
when electrically stimulated, the lateral hypothalamus causes an animal to begin to eat. Destruction of this area would cause an animal to starve (because hunger disappears)
when electrically stimulated, the ventromedial hypothalamus causes the animal to stop eating. Destruction of this area would cause an animal to eat continuously and become overweight.
says that the hypothalamus wants to maintain certain body weight.
Set Point theory
how our body uses energy. When we are below our optimum body weight, our metabolic rate drops.
external food cues. (Ex. glucose level decreases with sight, smell of a food)
once nauseous on particular food then always nauseous- taste aversions
people learn to like certain foods.
Binge eating followed by purging (vomiting, exercising, laxatives)
Starve body to below 85% normal body weight
severely overweight (could be due to unhealthy eating habits or predisposition)
initial excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
Sexual Motivation is very much driven by psychological factors. Sexual desire prevails even when capacity to have sex is absent.
Sexual Response Cycle (Masters and Johnson)
Evidence suggests that there is a genetic link. (EX- if one identical twin is gay the other is more likely. They also have similar brain structures.
varies among individuals; we have a desire to master complex tasks and reach personal goals. Most high achievers prefer moderate tasks that they can be successful on.
people motivated by $
motivated by esteem needs, satisfaction
people are motivated by external rewards and punishment. This style works for a short period of time.
Theory X management style
people are motivated by job satisfaction, high morale. This management style is more effective.
Theory Y management style
when one has two choices and both have positive outcomes (EX. Should I go to Daytona or Myrtle Beach for spring break.)
must choose between unattractive outcomes. (Ex. Mom asks you to wash the dishes or clean the \bathroom)
when one has one choice that has both desirable and undesirable outcomes. (EX. I like Ice Cream but it's very fattening)
One must choose between two or more options, each having desirable and undesirable qualities. (Ex. Choosing which college to attend)
Multiple Approach Avoidance
concept where one is so absorbed in one's work or an activity that he/she loses sense of time and self (considered mentally healthy- EX. having so much fun with friends that you can't believe how fast the time has gone).
High achievers prefer moderately difficult work where they can show success.
(2 diff. people)-physiological response (heart pounds) first which causes emotion (feeling afraid) second.
James Lange Theory
(2 diff. people)-physiological change and emotion happen simultaneously.
Cannon Bard Theory
(sometimes called Lazarus or Singer) physiological arousal and cognitive label/mental interpretation ("I'm afraid") occur simultaneously to cause the emotion.
Shacter two factor theory
life events causing us to have stress.
used to measure stress caused by different life changing events. This is measured in LCUs (life changing units) EX- going to college, girlfriend/boyfriend breaks up with you, parents fighting.
SRRS (Social Readjustment Rating Scale)
reaction to stress-occurs in 3 stages- (Mnemonic ARE)
+alarm reaction (sympathetic nervous system is activated)
+resistance (cope with stress)
+exhaustion (Vulnerable to sickness or disease in this stage)
Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome
perceived control over the situation lessens stress, perceived lack of control makes an event more stressful. Rats without control of shocks were more likely to develop ulcers