A formal arrangement between states by which they develop and maintain the terms of their relationship.
An entity that has a defined territory and a permanent pop. under the control of its own government.
the absolute right of a state to govern itself
a movement that seeks to promote Islam within the political arena
the movement for establishing the state of Israel
A wide body of literature that lays out legal principles and norms but is not a legal code or single document.
Gamal Abd al Nasser
leader of Egypt who was the the most prominent voice of Arab nationalism. A former army colonel, he emerged as Egypt's leader after taking part in a toup that toppled the corrupt king in 1852
Prime minister of Israel
Ayatollah Rubollah Khomeini
Iranian religious leader of 1979 Iranian Revolution, helped to overthrow shah then became leader
Anwar al Sadat
replaced Nasser as leader of Egypt. His top priority was to regain the Sinai Peninsula
Bashir al Assad
corrupt leader of Syria who brutally murders his people
dictator in Iraq who invaded Iran and started the Iran-Iraq war
Iran's conservative, hard-line president
Palestinian statesman who was the Chairman of the PLO
President during Iran hostage crisis
President George H.W. Bush
First Persian Gulf War
Prime Minister of Israel, helped to win the 6 day war
for what 4 reasons did the US maintain an active role in the ME?
to insure a steady flow of oil; long term stability, power and influence; concern about nuclear proliferation; has long been enmeshed in efforts to settle conflict between Israel and its Arab neighbors
What are the dates of WW1, WW2, and the Holocaust?
1914-1918, 1939-1945, 1933-1943
How did the ME come to be imperialized by GB and France and what was the primary motive?
Sykes Picot Accord, mandates.
What was the Arab response to becoming mandates?
they were disappointed and saw themselves as subjects of European colonialism
Woodrow Wilson promoted the idea of self-determination-what was it, who liked it, who didn't, why didn't it work out in the end?
Right to govern oneself. Arab leaders applauded it. Brits and French realized that it undermined their plan to impose the Sykes picot accord. Wilson backed down from his call and European counterparts forced a compromise that allowed them to keep their colonial possessions
when did Zionists begin buying land in Palestine?
after the Holocasut
Who accepted the Zionist plan and who rejected it?
Arabs rejected, Israelis accepted
What did the UN create when GB declared it was leaving in 1947?
a partition plan
when did Israel declare itself a state? Who recognized Israel? Who didn't?
may 1948. The US and USSR recognized it, everyone else didn't
who attacked Israel the very next day and what was the result?
Egypt, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon, and Iraq-they lost
in what ways were Cold War politics a part of the conflicts in the ME?
It caused the US to pick sides based on who the Soviet Union supported
What was the Truman Doctrine and what impact did it have on the ME?
400 million dollar foreign aid package to Turkey and
Greece where Truman pledge US support for governments resisting communism. It confirmed that the US was willing to step into the shoes of the Brits in the ME
What factors contributed to the 6 day war? Who won? What were the results of this war?
expanding nationalism, growing super power involvement, and an escalating arms build up. Immediate cause was Nasser's decision in May 1967 to order the withdrawal of UN peacekeepers separating Egyptian and Israeli forces in the Sinai Peninsula and to deny Israeli ships access to the Red Sea by by closing the Suez Canal. Israel won. Israel offered to withdraw from territories it had conquered if Arab leaders would recognize Israel's right to exist. Also set the stage for the next round of fighting in the ME
what factors contributed to the October War? Who won? What were the results?
Sadat's top priority was to regain the Sinai Peninsula. US diplomacy failed to persuade Israel to withdraw, so Egypt and Syria opened a 2 front offense on Yom Kippur. Israel won. It brought the US" chief concerns in the ME to the boiling point. Washington's commitment to Israel was put to the test. Cold war politics ultimately convinced Nixon to step of the flow of arms. Most significantly, it prompted Arab states to lead an oil embargo against eh US
How did the US and USSR play a role in both of these wars? How was the position of the US affected by the Cold War during the OCtober War?
It caused the 2 countries to support states they on opposite sids that they wouldn't necessarily support under different circumstances
How did the October War lay the groundwork for peace?
the early battlefield successes of teh Arab armies had soothed the sting of the 1967 war. Arab pride was partially restored
Results of the Camp David accords of 1978? Who was the president of the US at this time?
Carter was pres. In exchange for Israel's withdrawal from the Sinai, Egypt became the first Arab country to recognize Israel. US foreign aid sweetened the deal. But they scarcely addressed other aspects-Arab leaders condemned Sadat for neglecting the needs of Palestine and expelled Egypt from the Arab League
What happened to Sadat as a result of the peace agreement?
He was expelled from the Arab League
Camp David Accord-effect on cold war politics?
Brought Egypt securely into US camp in the ME. Countries who opposed the treaty, i.e. Syria and Iraq, moved further in the the Soviet camp. To counter the Soviets, US officials placed greater weight on relations with other longtime friends in the region
How and why support the Shah of Iran?
the US wanted to strengthen its relationship with Iran to oppose the Soviets.The shah was bound the the US by political, military, and oil interests and tied to Washington when the CIA helped him topple a nationalist prime minister.
What factors that the US failed to understand led the Iranian Revolution?
the shah's efforts to modernize the educational system and redistribute the land sparked protests among the clergymen because the changes threatened their ideology and power. Industrialization forced millions of peasants to abandon the countryside. The cities became overcrowded and the gap between rich and poor widened. Meanwhile, there was rampant corruption in the government
How and why was the shah overthrown? How did Iran feel about the US?
Pahlavi suffered from cancer and suffered hostile public opinion. He lost support of the military and lost the will to hold on to power. He left the country and Ayatollah Khomeini became ruler. He dubbed US "The great Satan"
Why did Iranian University students seize the US embassy and what happened after that?
When Pahlavi was accepted into the US for medical treatment, the Iranians were outraged and believed the US was plotting a counter-revolution. They held the hostages for over a year
What happened to Iran's oil industry as a result of the revolution?
It came to a complete halt
CAUSES: Hussein hoped to take advantage of the weakened Iranian army to get control of a disputed waterway. EFFECTS AND RESULTS: futher limited world oil supplies, millions killed, cost each country about 500 million dollars, both economies in shambles, THE DISPUTE WAS NEVER SETTLED. US POSITION: officially neutral but did not want a victory by Iran's Islamist government which was clearly hostile to the US (know the boxing match comic thing)
Lebanon's Civil War
CAUSES: disputes between Muslims and Christians (I think...?) SYRIAN INVOLVEMENT: sent in troops to occupy the eastern part of the country and directed many of the actions of anti-Israelis militias working in Lebanon ISRAELI INVOLVEMENT: invaded Lebanon to root out the PLO which was fighting against ISrael from Lebanon US INVOLVEMENT: deployed troops as part of an international peacekeeping force (hunger games!) 241 troops killed in a suicide bombing.
Why did the US invade Iraq in the first Persian Gulf War? Who was president of the US?
Because Iraq wouldn't withdraw from Kuwait. George HW Bush
Despite Saddam Hussein predicting that the war with the US would be the mother of all battles, who won the war and how quickly?
The US did in 100 hours
Effects of the Persian Gulf War on the US role in the ME?
US won greater influence in the ME
Since the end of the Cold War how have the challenges that the US faces in the ME changed?
It's no longer defined by its relation with the USSR
what are the central issues for the US in the ME today?
Confronted by the wide appeal of Islamist political movements, many of which oppose US policies. Also growing demand for oil
Why is the ME still so important in the world oil industry?
it produces about 55 percent of the world's oil
Secretary of state
Explain the importance of religion in many ME countries
It is tied to the government (theocracy) and broadcast often on tv and radio
What is political Islam and why are people choosing to follow it in recent years?
A movement that seeks to promote Islam in the policial arena. People are choosing to follow it because they are increasingly tired of foreign involvement and Western ideas
How do some political Islamists view the wests
"the great Satan"
Note Condoleeza Rice's quote on p22 and understand what she's talking about
In the past, the US pursued stability and democracy didn't matter, but now we're changing our policies and openly support anyone trying to achieve democracy
The US has supported Egypt since 1979, why do some criticize this support?
Because the violate basic human rights.
As of last spring how did the situation in Egypt change? What is the current situation?
Arab Spring- series of uprisings by the people in a number of Arab countries: Tunisia-first to achieve democracy. Egypt- overthrew Hosni Mubarak, is currently under military rule. The people are getting annoyed because elections haven't been held and they're afraid of a military dictatorship. The government is supposed to announce the date of the elections in June.
Bahrain- tried and failed
Syria- currently trying to overthrow Bushir al Assad
What does the US receive from its alliance with Saudi Arabia? What do some critics think?
Uninterrupted and reasonably priced flow of oil to the world economy. Critics note that SA is an undemocratic, fundamentalist Islamist regime
Why does the US value its alliance with Turkey?
Turkey has been a loyal supporter of the US' policies and an important member of NATO. Their repressive treatment of 12 million Kurds has raised concerns.
What has been the progress of democracy in this region?
Tunisia-first to achieve democracy
Egypt-over threw Mubarak, under a military rule
Syria-still working on it
Why did the US invade Iraq in 2003?
The US stated that Iraq had WMD and that Hussein would use them to threaten the US or its allies
Following the Iraq War of 2003:
CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE ARGUMENTS USED TO JUSTIFY THE WAR:they were false. INSURGENCY: sprang up across the country, was made up of local and foreign groups which were angry at US presence in Iraq. They also fought amongst eachother. US ROLE IN FIGHTING INSURGENCY: mid 2007 US increased number of troops in Iraq by about 3o,ooo. Substantially reduced violence
Costs of Iraq War both economic and human?
694 billion dollars in taxpayers' dollars, 4,3oo US soldiers killed, 21,ooo wounded, and 25 percent suffered from psychological issues.
Iran-what does the US believe about Iran's intentions for a nuclear program?
Believes that Iran has a well established program
How has the world responded to Iran's nuclear ambitions?
Russian officials proposed supplying Iran with fuel for its nuclear plant that could only be used for peaceful purposes. France, Germany, and the UK have negotiated closely with Iran to encourage it to end its nuclear program
Read secretary of state Hillary Clinton's quote on p25. What does it say about pres. Obama's preferred policies with Iran?
That Obama would rather talk it out than take action
How has life changed for Iranians since the Islamist Revolution?
Most are better off under the Islamic republic than they were under the shah. Life expectancy has risen. The rights of women are very restricted, though
What role has the US played in resolving the Arab Israeli conflict?
played host at negotiating sessions and exerts influence through foreign aid and diplomatic pressure
Why does the US see Arab-Israeli peace as important?
Because of the long history of friendship with Israel and the US leaders see it as a way to reduce regional instability and conflict
Why has the US stood by Israel throughout the years? How was this drawn criticism?
It won the admiration of many in the US as a model of democracy in the ME. Also a strategic ally in the region. Israel's treatment of the Palestinians has drawn more intense criticism.
What were the results of the Madrid peace conference in 1991?
Jordan joined Egypt in officially recognizing Israel as a state
What is a linchpin, and what do most experts consider to be the linchpin of peace in the ME?
A person or thing vital to an enterprise or orginization. Conflict between the Israelis and Palestinians
What did the 1993 meeting of Rabin and Arafat achieve?
Israel accepted the PLO as the legitimate representative of Palestine while the PLO recognized Israel's right to exist in peace and security and renounced the use of violence
What was laid out in the 1995 agreement between Rabin and Arafat?
to extend Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and to bring Israel's military occupation of the area to an end
What is Palestinian authority and what are their responsibilities?
A Palestinian government given control of day to day affairs in half of the Gaza strip and the main cities of the West Bank except East Jerusalem
How did the assassination of Prime Minister Rabin affect the peace process?
It caused it to come to a halt
How did Arafat's leadership frustrate the US and Palestine?
They were frustrated by the corruption and mismanagement during his leaderships. they saw his leadership as an obstacle to progress.
see page 31 of the packet