Ch 13 Cardiovascular: Vessels

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Dr Davila Medical Careers Institute, ECPI University Human Anatomy & Physiology II BIO 104

vascular system

consists of arteries, veins, and capillaries, through which blood circulates

heart blood flow

IVC/SVC→RA→tricuspid→RV→pulmonary valve →p. trunk→p. arteries→LUNGS→p. veins→LA→bicuspid→LV→aortic valve→aorta→BODY

lumen

cavity or passage in a tubular organ
(ie, through which blood flows)

artery

smaller, thick-walled vessels carrying high-pressure blood AWAY from heart;
all arteries carry O2-blood (red), except pulmonary artery

arteriole

small branch off an artery

capillary

microscopic vessels connecting arterioles to venules;
where material exchange occurs (eg, gas, nutrients) via diffusion, osmosis, & filtration;
often only 1-cell thick

venule

small branches into a vein

vein

larger, thin-walled vessels carrying low-pressure blood IN to heart;
1-way valves & skeletal muscles help return blood to heart;
all veins carry de-O2-blood (blue), except pulmonary vein

tunica adventitia

outer layer of blood vessel;
fibrous connective tissue;
aka tunica externa

tunica externa

outer layer of blood vessel;
fibrous connective tissue;
aka tunica adventitia

tunica media

middle layer of blood vessel;
smooth muscle tissue;
thicker in arteries than veins

tunica intima

inner layer of blood vessel;
smooth endothelium and underlying connective tissue;
aka tunica interna

tunica interna

inner layer of blood vessel;
smooth endothelium and underlying connective tissue;
aka tunica intima

endothelium

smooth, innermost lining of blood vessels

cardiopulmonary circulation

heart pumps de-O2 blood to lungs & receives O2 blood from lungs;
RV→pulm. valve.→pulm. trunk→pulm arteries→LUNGS→pulm. veins→LA

systemic circulation

heart pumps O2 (oxihemoglobin), nutrients, water, hormones & wastes to and from all organ systems;
LA→aortic valve→aorta→BODY→IVC/SVC→RA

aorta

largest artery in body;
attached to left ventricle;
parts: ascending, arch, descending (thoracic and abdominal)

coronary artery

1 of 2 arteries, which branch off base of ascending aorta;
provde O2-rich blood to myocardium

pulmonary trunk

artery carrying blood from right ventricle;
branches into L&R pulmonary arteries

brachiocephalic artery

first artery branching off aortic arch;
further divides into right common carotid and right subclavian artery

common carotid artery

1 of 2 arteries (L & R), which
branch off either brachiocephalic (R) or artic arch (L);
provide blood to entire head;
further divides into internal and external carotid arteries

internal carotid artery

1 of 2 arteries (L & R), which
branch off common carotid arteries;
provide blood to brain

external carotid artery

1 of 2 arteries (L & R), which
branch off common carotid arteries;
provide blood to face, head, & neck

right subclavian artery

branched off of the brachiocephalic;
courses beneath clavicle towards armpit to become axillary artery;
branches off a vertebral artery (to brain)

vertebral artery

1 of 2 arteries that branch off subclavian arteries, then course up vertebrae into brain

left common carotid artery

second branch off aortic arch;
provides blood to neck & head;
further divides into internal and external carotid arteries

left subclavian artery

third branch off aortic arch;
courses beneath clavicle towards armpit to become axillary artery;
branches off a vertebral artery (to brain)

lower thoracic aorta

superior part of descending aorta, which supplies blood to chest organs
(eg, lungs, diaphragm, esophagus, chest muscles)

abdominal aorta

inferior part of descending aorta (beneath diphragm), which supplies blood to abdominal organs;
branches into L & R common iliac arteries

common iliac artery

1 of 2 arteries (L & R) that branch off the end of descending aorta; course into pelvis, then branches into internal and external iliac arteries

vasoconstriction

blood vessel tightening, which decreases diameter, or size of lumen;
also increases blood pressure
smooth muscle in tunica media contracts

vasodilation

blood vessel relaxes, which increases lumen size;
also decreases blood pressure
smooth muscle in tunica media relaxes;
aka vasodilatation

jugular vein

one of the veins that collect blood from head: brain (L&R internal), face (L&R external), and chin (anterior);
all flow into the brachiocephalic veins, which connect to SVC

great saphenous vein

longest vein in body;
drains blood from foot, leg, and thigh;
joins with femoral vein

coronary sinus

vein that returns de-O2 blood from heart to RA

hepatic portal circulation

liver blood vessels that connect two capillary beds: arteries→caps→portal vein→caps→hepatic vein

fetal circulation

special vessels and circulation present in fetus;
includes de-O2 blood in umbilical arteries coursing to placenta, and O2 nutrient-rich blood via umbilical veins

placenta

vascular uterine structure conected to fetus via umbilical cord;
providing O2 and nutrients to fetus and removes wastes from fetus

blood flow

affected by:
1. blood pressure differences
2. friction (with vessel & cells)
3. blood viscosity (thickness)
4. length and diameter of blood vessels

systolic pressure

higher arterial pressure caused by ventricular contraction;
top number in blood pressure reading

pulse pressure

difference between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure;
Pulse = (systolic) - (diastolic)

diastolic pressure

lower arterial pressure during ventricular relaxation;
bottom number in blood pressure reading

resistance

any mechanical force that slows or opposes motion; resistance opposes pressure;
smaller blood vessels have higher resistance;
larger blood vessels have lower resistance

pressure

force pushing on an area or surface;
in blood, pressure must overcome resistance for blod to flow (circulate)

pulse point

place where artery may be compressed against bone with fingertips to feel pulse;
big 3: brachial, radial, external carotid

median cubital vein

vein between the brachial and antebrachial regions (anterior to cubitus, or elbow);
often chosen for venipuncture along with nearby basalic & cephalic veins

dural sinuses

large dural gaps that drain venous blood from brain into internal jugular v.

brachiocephalic vein

veins formed by union of internal jugular and subclavian veins;
brachiocephalic veins fuse into superior vena cava

blood aging

3 changes:
1. less hematocrit
2. blood clots (thrombus)
3. blood pooling in legs

heart aging

5 changes:
*1. less cardiac output
2. atherosclerosis (hardening)
3. conduction system dysfunction*
4. damaged muscle replaced by scar
5. reduced cardiac skeleton elasticity

vessel aging

3 changes:
1. thrombi (clots)
2. less elastic arteries (possible aneurysm)
3. calcium deposits (hardening)

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