What was unique about WWI?
First war to be fought in the trenches. It also marked the ending of European dominance.
What led to WWI?
Nationalism, imperial expansion, militarism, foramtion of alliance
feeling of intense loyalty to one's country or ethnic group. Ethnics group felt they were entitled to become their own naitons.
European nations fought over colonial holdings. Less developed world being taken over.
Competition to increase military power so countries can compete for colonial power.
(Before WWI) Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
(Before WWI) Triple Entente
Great Britain, France, Russia
What happened in the Balkans that led to WWI?
The Serbs in Austria-Hungary wanted independence and to unite the Slavic people. June 1914, in Bosnia, Archduke Franz Ferdinand is killed by Serbian nationalists. Austria-Hungary gets permission from Germany to declare war on the Serbs.
Britain, France, Russia, (later U.S.)
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
Germany had a major disadvantage to being surrounded by both rivals. Plan was to attack Western front first adn then the eastern front. Not very successful and bad outcome.
How come America got involved?
Woodrow Wilson did not want to get involved. During WWI, U.S. cont'd to trade w/ Great Britain and sent them money and resources. German viewed this as a threat and pointed their U-boats at America. Later a telegram is intercepted from Germany to Mexico, asking Mexico to join the war and fight against the U.S. The final straw.
Between Russia and Germany and in 1918, it gave Germany substantial territories in return for peace in Russia. This was due to the fact that Russia was currently going through a revolution to get rid of the czar under Lenin and the Bolsheviks. Offically pulled out of WWI to manage internal affairs.
November 11, 1918 cease fire. There was no way the Germans could've won the war.
The Fourteen Points
Created by President Wilson. Wants national determination, free trade, freedom of seas, no more secret treaties, limit on arms, creates the League of Nations.
League of Nations
International diplomatic and peace organization created in the Treaty of Versailles that ended WWI; goal of President Wilson of the United States was in peace negotiations; the U.S. maintained political isolationism and never joined.
Paris Peace Conference
Allied powers came together in Paris to discuss what to do after WWI. Allies did not agree on the Fourteen Points. Decided Germany needs to pay back for destruction in the war, lose land, and have their military disarmed. Germany and Russia were not invited. The end result was the Treaty of Versailles.
Treaty of Versailles
Germany must take responsibility for WWI. Billions in reparations, forced to dis-arm, give up land and forced to give up colonies. Many Germans resented this.
3 major fronts: Western, Eastern, Italian
France+Britain fought on Western, Russia on Eastern, and isn't until 1915 when Italian front is established between Italians and Austrians.
British promised to support Jewish settlers in Israel in 1917.