o Legendary king of Phrygia (Turkey)
o Greek legend: He wished that everything he touched would turn to gold, but when the food in his mouth turned to gold, and in some versions his daughter, he begged to be released. The name Midas is now used to mean very rich.
o John Pierpont Morgan, an American financier, was one of the most successful financiers of the 19th century.
o A wealthy patron of the arts in ancient Rome.
o His name is commonly used as the symbol of wealth and a generous patron of the arts.
o An ivy league college in New Haven
Old Money vs. New Money
o Old money- Inthertitance
o New Money- Start from scratch (like Rockefeller) and earn your way up
o A character in The Satyricon. Trimalchio was famous for hosting extremely luxurious parties. "Rags to riches (was a former slave).
o Used in comparison to Gatsby and his parties.
Edith Cummings (Jordan Baker)
o One of the first amateur golfers of her generation
o Her father was a wealthy socialite
o A popular belief in the 20th century that was essentially "population control", stating that only the best should reproduce
o A self-made billionaire in the late 19th century
o He started as an orphan and worked his way to the top
The Garden of Versailles
o One of the most notable features of the palace of Versailles, the official residence of the kings of France between 1682 and 1790.
Simon Called Peter
o Novel written in 1921 by Robert Keable, the title is a reference to Simon Peter the apostle and first Pope of the Catholic Church.
o This book was very controversial due to both sexual and religious content
o Nick mentions that he thinks the novel might be terrible, but it could just be the alcohol
o An American theatrical producer, impresario, director, and playwright. He is recognized in American history for being able to bring a new kind of naturalism to the stage (such as putting appropriate scents to certain scenes).
o "The Brain" was a New York businessman and gambler who became a famous kingpin of the Jewish Mafia.
o "He's the man who fixed the 1919 World Series" (73), this is relevant because Rothstein is said to have been behind the Black Sox Scandal.
Plato and the Platonic Ideal
o A Greek philosopher
o A belief that only ideas (pure forms) are really real.
Christ at 12 in the temples
o (Quote from the Gospel of Luke) "He was a son of God... and he must be about his father's business (93).
o This comment was made by the young Jesus to his parents when they find him talking with the teachers in the temple.
Serfs and feudalism
o Serfdom is the status of peasants
o Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe. It was used as a system for structuring society around relationship derived from the holding of land in exchange of labor.
o "Americans, while occasionally willing to be serfs, have always been obstinate about being peasantry" (88).
o In Greek mythology, the Sirens were sea-creatures, usually portrayed as bird-women. Their singing had the power to lure sailors to their deaths.
Dante's Divine Comedy and Beatrice
o An epic poem written by Dante Alighieri between 1308 and 1321(his death).
o Widely considered the greatest work of Italian literature and seen as one of the best works of world literature.
o An imaginative and allegorical vision of the afterlife in a culmination of the medieval world-view as it had developed in the Western Church.
o Beatrice: Dante's idea woman who guides him through Heaven. She was a Florentine woman whom he met in childhood and admired from afar for many years to follow.
o Gilda Gray
• A Polish born American actress and dancer who became famous in the US for popularizing a dance called the shimmy, which because very fashionable in the 1920s.
The Roaring Twenties
• The distinctive cultural edge of the 1920s.
• This phase emphasized the periods social, artistic, and culture energy. (Normalcy in terms of politics, jazz music, flappers, Art Deco)
• The era ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929.
• Speakeasy, also called blind pig or blind tiger, is an establishment that illegally sells alcoholic beverages. This led to the rise of gangsters.
• Flappers were young, rebellious middle-class women. Big indications are things like no corsets, slinky knee-length dresses, a chin0bob, and heavy makeup (especially around the lips and the eyes)
• In terms of prohibition, that law led to a rise of organized crime (transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals) as typified by Chicago's Al Capone, smuggling and gangster associated all over the U.S.
• The gatling gun is one of the best known early rapid-fire weapons. It was used by the Union forces during the Civil War. It requires a four-man crew to operate.
World Series of 1919 and the White Sox
o Chicago White Sox against Cincinnati Reds
o Black Sox Scandal: several members of the Chicago franchise conspired with gamblers to throw World Series games
James J. Hill
o (1863-1916) A Canadian-American railroad executive. He was the chief executive officer of the Great Northern Railway, which served a substantial area of the upper Midwest and northern Great Plains, and Pacific Northwest. Because of the side of the economic dominance, he became known as The Empire Builder.
o A fictional cowboy hero created in 1904 by Clarence E. Mulford who wrote a series of popular short stories based on this character
o In early writings, the character is portrayed as rude, dangerous, and rough-talking. By 1935, the character was portrayed by William Boyd (movie actor) and changed into a clean-cut on-screen hero.
o In terms of film history, Bill "Hopalong" Cassidy was reserved and well spoken. He was often called upon to intervene when dishonest characters were taking advantage of honest citizens.
o He traveled the west with two other characters- one young and trouble prone with a weakness for damsels in distress, and the other, comically awkward and outspoken.
o (1706-1790) One of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
o He was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, musician, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and a diplomat.
o He invented the lighting rod, bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and the glass "armonica" as well as formed both the first public lending library.
o He earned the title of "The First American"
Horatio Alger and Rags-to-Riches
o (1832-1899) A prolific American author best known for his many formulaic juvenile novels about impoverished boys and their rise from humble background to lives of middle-class security and comfort through hard work, determination, courage, and honesty.
o His lifelong theme of "rags to riches" had a profound impact on America in the Gilded Age
o Related to Gatsby and his rise to wealth from a very poor background (his father was a failed farmer).
• A set of teachings by Jesus that appear in the Gospel of Matthew and Luke
• The tern comes from the Latin adjective, beatus, which means happy, fortunate, or blissful.
• The teachings are expressed as eight blessing in the Sermon on the Mount in Matthew. In Luke, four similar blessings spear in the Sermon on the Plain.
The Sermon on the Mount
• This is a collection of sayings and teachings of Jesus, which emphasized his moral teaching found in the Gospel of Matthew.
• The Sermon is the longest piece of teaching from Jesus in the New Testament including teachings of Jesus such as the Beatitudes, and the widely recited Lord's Prayer.
• To most believers in Jesus, the Sermon on the Mount contains the central beliefs of Christian discipleship.