What were the factors that contributed to the outbreak of World War I?
The weakening of the Ottoman Empire, Competition for resources in colonial territories, Nationalism, Alliance systems and Military plans (militarism)-Imperialism, Nationalism, Militarism, Alliance Systems
The assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Hungary(immediate cause of the war) triggered a chain of events over which military and political leaders lost control.
What was a new and potent defensive weapon in World War I?
There were many new weapons but the most potent defensive weapon was the machine gun. Submarines or uboats were also effective, but not as much as machine guns.
Warfare had never been waged this way before. Neither side could win.(stalemate in the trenches)-WESTERN FRONT STRECHED FROM SWITZERLAND TO THE NORTH SEA
Women played a more important role in World War I. They joined the workforce for the duration of the war.
Rationing during the war hit the Germans especially hard. The diet of the German population at times was limited to 1,000 calories a day. Hunger Blockade
During World War I African Americans in the United States migrated north in vast numbers to work in the war industries.
What was the February Revolution and who led it?
The February Revolution began when food ran out in Petrograd(St. Petersburg). Housewives and women factory workers staged demonstrations. Soldiers mutinied and joined striking workers. A few days later the tsar abdicated and leaders of the parliamentary parties, led by Alexander Kerensky formed a Provisional government.
What did Russia agree to in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
By the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany, Russia lost territories containing a third of its population and wealth. Poland, Finland and the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania became independent republics.
The Germans knew that unrestricted submarine warfare was likely to bring the United States into the war, but they were willing to gamble that Britain and France would collapse before the United States could send enough troops to help them. With the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare America entered World War I.
List the main points of Wilson's Fourteen Points?
Germany had to evacuated occupied lands including Alsace and Lorraine
Inclusion of local populations to settle territorial disputes
Autonomy for nationalities under Ottoman rule(page 818 and 819)
Formation of an association of nations to ensure the independence and territorial integrity of all states
Although France took in 1.5 million refugees after the war, where did most refugees prefer to go?
Most refugees after World War I migrated to the United States
What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles? Which ones angered Germany?
Germany was forbidden to have an air force and could only have a token army and navy.
It gave up large parts of the eastern territory to a newly reconstituted Poland.
Germany had to pay reparations.
They had to sign a guilt clause and accept responsibility for the war.
What enabled the Bolsheviks to win the civil war in Russia after World War I?
The Bolsheviks won the civil war because of the leadership of Leon Trotsky and the Red Army.
In 1923, the German government began printing money recklessly, causing the most severe inflation the world had ever seen.(The German Crisis of 1923)
What important events happened in China after the death of Cixi?
The Revolutionary Alliance led by Sun Yat-sen prepared to take over. The military thwarted Sun's plans. A revolutionary assembly at Nanjing elected Sun president of china but Sun had no military and resigned after a few weeks. The new national assembly elected Yuan Shikal president of the new Chinese Republic.
The Arab people contributed to the Allied victory in World War I and expected to have a say in the outcome of the war. But the French and British planned to treat the Middle East as a territory open to colonial rule. What was the result of this legacy?
The result of the legacy of the treatment of the Middle East after World War I was the instability that has persisted to this day.
At the Paris Peace Conference what countries proposed to divide the German colonies and the territories of the Ottoman Empire among themselves?(These eventually became mandates)
France, Britain, Italy and Japan proposed to divide the former German colonies and the territories of the Ottoman Empire among themselves.
In 1923, Mustafa Kemal turned Turkey into a secular republic.
What happened when more Jewish immigrants than anticipated arrived in Palestine after World War I?
The British tried to limit Jewish immigration. The country was torn by strikes and guerilla war. Jewish settlers were smuggled in by militant Zionists and Britian came to be hated by both the Jews and the Arabs.
Women's lives changed more rapidly in the 1920s than in any previous decade.
What transformed the landscape of western Europe and North America more than any other development?
The skyscraper and automobile transformed the landscape of Western Europe and North America.
What did Stalin's First Five-Year Plan stress?
Stalin's First Five-Year Plan stressed increases in electricity and heavy industry.
How did Stalin prevent any possible resistance or rebellion to his plans?
To prevent any possible resistance or rebellion, the NKVD, Stalin's secret police force, created a climate of suspicion and fear. The Great Purge of Party members and killing of protesting kulaks resulted in an estimated 20 million deaths.
What began as a stock-market crash soon turned into the deepest and most widespread depression in history.
In the non-industrialized regions, which countries were the hardest hit by the Depression?
In the non-industrialized regions countries that depended on the export of raw goods or materials were the hardest hit.
What factors were common to areas with fascist dictatorships?
There was bewilderment with modernity. The fascist dictatorship had these common factors:
Bewilderment with modernity
A charismatic leader making promises to improve things
A Fear of communism
Who were the first members of Italy's fasci di combattimento?
The first members of the fasci di combattimento or Fascist Party were unemployed veterans and violent youths who banded together to demand action and intmidated politicians.
What book was written by Adolph Hitler?
While in jail for a failed coupe attempt, Adolph Hitler wrote Mein Kampf(My Struggle) in which he outlined his goals and beliefs. His ideas went far beyond nationalism; they were thought to be so insane that almost no one took it seriously. He believed that Germany should incorporate all German-speaking areas, the destruction of all Jews and talked of the "master race."
What group did Hitler and his "master race" especially hate?
The most instense hatred was for Jews on whom they blamed every disaster that had befallen Germany.
What were Hitler's goals for Germany?
Hitler planned to repeal the Treaty of Versailles and takeover all German-speaking territories. He wanted to expand into Poland and eliminate Jews from Europe. One of his goals was conquest.
What were the causes for the politics of appeasement?
The nonfascist countries gave into the aggressors with a policy of appeasement. This policy came about because of their fear of going to war again. They also feared communism more than they did fascism. They weren't very knowledgeable about fascist tactics and many leaders believed all leaders were honorable men. Neville Chamberlin who pushed for the Munich Agreement said a leader's word was as good as a contract. (meaning Hitler when he said he had no more territorial ambitions if they would give him the Sudetenland)
What event began World War II?
The invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939 started World War II.
How was Mao Zedong's variety of communism a radical departure from the traditional Marxist-Leninist ideology?
Mao's variety of communism was a radical departure from the traditional Marxist-Leninist ideology (which stressed the importance of backwardness of the peasants and pinned its hopes on industrial workers). Mao's relied on the peasantry instead.
What happened in Nanjing in China from 1937-1938?
The Japanese became incredibly violent because China wasn't proving to be easy to take. In the winter of 1937-1938 Japanese troops took Nanjing and raped over 20,000 women. 200,000 prisoners and civilians were killed and the city was looted and burned. This became known as the Rape of Nanjing.
How was the Battle of Britain conducted?
The Battle of Britain was fought primarily by air attacks by Germany on Britain. The Royal Air Force and radar both contributed to Britain holding out against the Germans.
In Russia, Germany was defeated at the Battle of Stalingrad.
In North Africa German and Italians forces were finally defeated at the Battle of El Alamein
in Egypt by the British.
What was the key to victory in fighting the Japanese in the Pacific?
The key to victory in the vast Pacific Ocean was air craft carriers.
Why was the end of the war in the Pacific controversial?
The war ended with the dropping of the first atomic bomb by the United States on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This was controversial with many second guessing Americas action, but Truman came to believe that many more would die(1 million) if they tried to take the Japanese mainland.
Why were the Communist Chinese forces able to defeat the Guomindang in the Chinese Civil War?
The Communist Chinese were able to defeat the Guomindang forces under Chiang kai Chek because of the greed and ineptness of the Guomindang.
What were the scientific and technological innovations spurred on by World War II?
The scientific and technological innovations spurred on by World War II included antibiotics, nuclear weapons, synthetic rubber, fighter planes, jet engines and radar.
How many Jews were killed by the Nazi in World War II?
The Nazi and the Holocaust killed 6 million Jews.
What was the main cause of environmental stress during the war?
Certainly the bombing and the destruction of World War II had a great impact, but the main cause of environmental stress during the war was the economic development that increased the demand for raw materials and their extraction.
The majority of Indians practiced Hinduism. Muslims made up one-quarter of the people of India and formed a majority in the northwest. There was significant internal conflict between the two groups.
How did Indian Nationalist respond to World War I and why?
Indian nationalist supported Britain in World War I but expected that India would be granted independence after the war.
What were Gandhi's unusual political ideas?
Gandhi's political ideas included: ahimsa (nonviolence) satyagraha (the search for truth).
How did Gandhi protest British violence?
Gandhi's brilliance as a political tactician and master of public relations gestures was demonstrated in acts such as his: eighty mile "Walk to the Sea" to make salt (in violation of the government's salt monopoly), several fasts "unto death" and repeated arrests and prison sentences(civil disobedience).
In the 1920s, the British slowly and reluctantly began to give Indians control of areas such as education , the economy, and public works.
When did Indian independence occur and how was it structured?
In 1947 Britain recognized India's independence with the Partition of India and Pakistan. Partition and independence were accompanied by violence between Muslims and Hindus and by massive flows of refugees as Hindus left predominantly Muslim areas and Muslims left predominantly Hindu areas.
What impact did Europeans have on African health care?
Although they claimed to improve it, colonialism usually worsened health care
Why was World War II important for African independence?
World War II was important for African independence movements because many Africans had served in Allied armies and they returned to Africa with radical new ideas.
What caused the poverty of the Mexican peasantry?
Concentration of land ownership increased after independence as wealthy Mexican and American elite used bribery and force to acquire millions of acres of good agricultural land in southern Mexico, forcing peasants into wage labor, debt, and relocation.
How did the Constitutionalist eventually win control in Mexico?
The reasons behind the Constitutionalists eventually winning control in Mexico included:
1. They used profits from oil to buy weapons.
2. They adopted many agrarian and social reforms.
3. They defeated and killed Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa.
4. They controlled oil exports.
Who controlled aviation and radio communication in Argentina and Brazil after World War I?
Aviation and radio communications were introduced to Argentina and Brazil after World War I, but European and U.S. companies dominated both sectors.
The Depression of 1929 caused Argentina and Brazil, like many European countries to turn to authoritarian regimes that promised to solve their economic problems.
Who instituted import-substitution industrialization and what was it?
Getulio Vargas instituted import-substitution industrialization. It limited foreign trade by raising import duties to give support to the newly developed industries in Brazil.
What countries were included in the United Nations Security Council as permanent members?
China, France, Great Britain, the United States and the USSR(Soviet Union)-and seven rotating members.
What was the purpose of the IMF and World Bank when they were created?
The IMF was created to use currency reserves from member nations to finance temporary trade deficits and the World Bank was to provide funds for reconstructing Europe and helping needy countries after the war.
A Soviet blockaded of Berlin was defeated by an airlift (Berlin Airlift) of food and fuel, but one of the most visible signs of the Germany's political division was the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961. It came to be one of the most potent symbols of the Cold War.
**Why was the Korean War limited to the Korean peninsula?
The Korean War was a limited to the Korean peninsula because the United States feared that attacking China might prompt Soviet retaliation.
Who was Ho Chi Minh?
Ho Chi Minh was a communist nationalist who formed a coalition called the Viet Minh against the French. He then led a communist government in North Vietnam.
Describe Algeria's struggle for independence from France.
France was determined to hold onto Algeria after WWII. The Algerian revolt in 1954 was very brutal. It produced an Algerian independence movement organized by the FLN. Egypt and other Arab countries supported Algerian forces and it ended in 1962 with Algerian independence.
What was the policy of racial segregation in South Africa?
The policy of racial segregation in South Africa was apartheid.
Why was Latin America's decolonization significantly different from that of Africa?
Latin America's decolonization was significantly different from that of Africa in that independence movements happened in the nineteenth century and they weren't followed by industrialization.
What was the Bay of Pigs invasion?
The Bay of Pigs invasion happened under President Kennedy's administration and it was an attempt by Cuban exiles trained and financed by the U.S. to overthrow Fidel Castro.
The Cold War isolated Japan and excluded it from most of the world's political issues. This allowed Japan to rebuild develop its economic strength.
What was the most important political issue in Arab countries since World War II?
The most important political issue in Arab countries since World War II has been their struggle with Israel.
What problem was caused by the Egyptian-Israeli War of 1973?
The Egyptian-Israeli War of 1973 caused members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Coutries(OPEC) to be angry at the U.S. for its help to Israel and led to the Arab Oil embargo.
What is the "Brazilian Solution?"
The combination of dictatorship, repression, and government promotion of industrialization.
Where was the "Dirty War," fought and what was it?
The "Dirty war was in Argentina and consisted of kidnappings, torture and other means of stopping opposition.
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini led an Iranian revolt in 1979 against the former shah and then implemented a parliamentary republic with strict control by religious leaders.
What led to the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq war?
Saddam Husain's fear that the revolutionary government of Iran would incite Iraq's Shi'ites to rebellion.
Which nation fought an unwinnable war in Afghanistan in the 1980s?
Under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, China experienced economic growth because freeing industry from the state-run system and permitted foreign investment for the first time since 1949.
Deep division had appeared among communists states by the 1980s and 1990s.
What powerful force ultimately caused the USSR to dissolve in 1991?
Nationalism divided and ultimately caused the USSR to dissolve into 15 republics in 1991.
In 1994 the Hutus perpetrated genocide against the Tutsis in Rwanda.
What two factors continue to sustain China's economic growth?
High savings rates and direct foreign investment have continued to sustain China's economic growth.
Why is global immigration increasing?
Global immigration is increasing in large part to growing population in developing nations.
What has been the most influential technological innovation of the last three decades?
The computer has been the most influential technological innovation of the last three decades.
The term used in Latin America and other developing regions to describe free-market policies that include reducing tariff protection for local industries; the sale of public-sector industries, like national airlines and public utilities, to private investors or foreign corporations; and the reduction of social welfare policies and public-sector employment.
Gorbachev, Mikhail (b. 1931)
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of communist governments in eastern Europe.
perestroika-restructuring of the government-policy of "openness that was the centerpiece of Mikhail Gorbachev's efforts to liberalize communism in the Soviet Union.
What was the motive for the September 11th, 2001 terrorist attacks?
Anger over American influence in the Middle East was the motive for the September 11th attacks.
What was the most successful of the regional trade associations?
The European Union (EU) was the most successful of the regional trade associations.
Although democracy has had mixed results in Africa, in 1994 Nelson Mandela was elected in South Africa and democracy was used to resolve conflicts.
Eastern European states struggled for democratic stability, but in Asia post authoritarian democracies have been more successful.
What was the purpose for the U.S. invasion of Iraq?
It was believed that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction although they were never found.
What is the mainstay of Afghanistan's economy?
The mainstay of Afghanistan's economy has been opium for many years.
One example of the United States government's aggressive policy toward terrorism was the overthrow of the Taliban in Afghanistan.
Free trade appeared to be the best way to achieve economic growth in the 1990s, but what problems have been caused by this economic policy?
Free trade has caused downturns and inequalities, prompting protests around the world.
What was the purpose of the North American Free Trade Agreement?
The purpose of the North American Free Trade Agreement was to eliminate tariffs among the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
The Internet has been a major catalyst to promoting global culture.
What are NGOs?
NGO's are non governmental organizations that have been important forces for promoting human rights like Amnesty International and Doctors without Borders.
Where do the great majority of people infected with AIDS live?
The great majority of people infected with AIDS live in sub-Saharan Africa.
Cultural imperialism has spread Western tastes and styles around the globe by using global marketing.
Why has English become a global second language?
English has become a global second language because of the many former British colonies used English and because the United States has become important in world affairs and business.
The economic, political, and cultural integration and interaction of all parts of the world brought about by increasing trade, travel, and technology.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
An international body established in 1995 to foster and bring order to international trade.