a desire to do things well and overcome difficulties and obstacles
particular behavioral impulses that accompany certain emotions
stable predispositions toward certain types of emotional responses;they are enduring aspects of our personalities that set the threshold for the occurrence of particular emotional states.
part of the emotion process; this is a situation that may lead to an emotional response.
the evaluation of a situation with respect to how relevant it is to one's own welfare; it drives the process by which emotions are elicited.
a set of emotions that are common to all humans; includes anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and surprise.
broaden and build mode
Fredrickson's model for positive emotions, which posits that they widen our cognitive perspective and help us acquire useful life skills.
the idea that behavior varies across cultures and can only be understood within the social laws, rules, or norms of the culture in which they occur.
learned norms or rules, often taught very early, about when it is appropriate to show certain expressions of emotion and to whom one should show them.
the perceived states of tension that occur when our bodies are deficient in some need.
a smile that expresses true enjoyment. These smiles involve both the muscles that pull up the lip corners diagonally and those that contract the band of muscles encircling the eye to create crow's feet and raise the cheeks.
the cognitive and behavioral efforts people use to modify their emotions.
includes the physiological, behavioral/expressive, and subjective changes that occur when emotions are generated.
brief, multifaceted changes to experience and physiology that result from a response to a meaningful situation in the person's environment.
an example of a response-focused strategy for regulating emotion involving the deliberate attempt to inhibit the outward manifestation of an emotion.
facial action coding system
a widely used method for measuring all observable muscular movements that are possible and observable in the human face.
a simple sugar in the blood that provides energy for cells throughout the body, including the brain.
the process by which all organisms work to maintain physiological equilibrium or balance around an optimal set point.
simply any external object or event that motivates behavior.
James-Lange theory of emotion
says that our perception of the physiological changes that accompany emotions create the subjective emotional experience.
the overall evaluation we have of our lives; it is an aspect of subjective well-being.
affective states that operate in the background of consciousness, which tend to last longer than most emotions.
the urge to move toward one's goals; it gives us an energetic push toward accomplishing tasks.
states of cellular or bodily deficiency that compel drives.
neuro-cultural theory of emotion
Ekman's theory that accounts for the fact that certain aspects of emotion, such as the facial expressions and physiological changes, are similar in all humans, whereas others, such as how people appraise situations and regulate their emotional expressions in front of others, vary from one culture to another.
an antecedent-focused emotion regulation strategy, in which one reevaluates how one has viewed an event so that a different emotion results.
the full realization of one's potentials and abilities in life. According to Maslow, this motive sits atop the hierarchy of needs.
occur as a function of how well we live up to our expectations, the expectations of others, or the rules set by society.
the ideal fixed setting of a particular physiological system, such as internal body temperature.
actions and arousal involving stimulation of the genitals, which may or may not involve orgasm.
our disposition to be attracted to either the opposite sex (heterosexual), the same sex (homosexual) or both sexes (bisexual).
subjective experience of emotion
the changes in the quality of our conscious experience that occur during emotional responses.
consists of life satisfaction, domain satisfactions, and positive and negative affect.
we use this term to refer to a behavior that is common to all human beings and can be seen in cultures all over the world.
the idea that both low arousal and high arousal lead to poor performance, whereas moderate levels of arousal lead to optimal performance, depicted visually as a graph between performance (y-axis) and arousal (x-axis) that has an inverted-U shape.