Condition of Germany after WWI
reparations led to huge debts; political instability, economic devastation, rise of several political parties, i.e. the Nazis
Hitler's Rise to Power
By 1932, the Nazis were the largest party in the Reichstag.
Rise of Mussolini
Fascism, strong centralized state
Rise of Stalin
forced industrialization, collectivization of agriculture
Japanese Aggression Prior to Pearl Harbor
need for raw materials
European leaders seek appeasement with Hitler
Non-Aggression Pact with Russia
avoid a two-front war
German Invasion of Poland
Britian and France declare war
Extermination of Jews in concentration/extermination camps.
Battle fo Britain
The Royal Air Force saves Britain from invasion.
Women's Role at Home in WWII
Rosie the Riveter--Women working in the defense industry
Japanese-Americans removed from West Coast
America Embargoes Japan
US restricts oil and other strategic materials to Japan. Japanese assets froze in the US.
US Battle Plan in the Pacific
Important Battles in the Pacific
Midway, Iwo Jima, Okinawa
Japan lost the heart of its fleet--four carriers. US had stopped the Japanese advance.
Cut the distance between Mariana Islands and Tokyo. Bloodiest battle for marines. Japanese use system of trenches, caves, etc.
US needed a base near Japan for invasion.
Important Battle sin Europe
D-Day (Normandy), Stalingrad, Battle of the Bulge
Opens up western front for the Allies
Russian troops ordered to hold the city at all costs. Approximately a half million soldiers were lost on both sides. After this defeat, the German Army was on the defensive in Russia.
Battle of the Bulge
Biggest battle for the Americans in Western Europe. Last German offensive fails. Germans lost thousands of their best men, tanks, and supplies.
Truman believed dropping the bombs would end the war and save lives.
Germany would be divided into four zones. Great Britain, the US, the Soviet Union, and France would each control a zone. Berlin would also be divided into four zones.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
A mutual defense alliance to protect Eastern Europe and other nations against the Soviet Union.
Winston Churchill's term to describe the division between the Communist nations of Eastern Europe and Western Europe.
Satellite Nations of the Soviet Union
communist countries of Eastern Europe controlled by the Soviet Union: Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia.
Truman pledge to defend Greece and Turkey against Communism. In the long run, it pledge the US to fight the spread of communism worldwide.
Gave European natiosn billions of aid to rebuild their economies. Western Europe's economic recovery weakened the appeal of communism and opened new markets for trade.
West Berline under the control fo the Western Allies was located deep inside communist controlled East Germany. When Soviet troops cut all road and rail trafic to West Berlin, American planes flew supplies into Berlin for nearly a year to keep West Berlin from falling into Communist hands.
A military alliance formed by the Soviet Union including its Eastern European satellite nations