Schlieffen Plan (Failed)
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Erich von Falkenhayn
Falkenhayn succeeded Moltke as Chief of the General Staff of the German Army after the Battle of the Marne on 14 September 1914.
World War I New Technology
Machine guns, tanks, chemical gases, rifles, airplanes, U-boats( Submarines)
Battle of Tannenberg and Masurian
Hindenberg and Ludendorff of Germany stop Russian's
Arthur Zimmermann, German foreign minister, sent a telegram to the Geran minister in Mexico and said Mexico would be rewarded if it fought against the United States
Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. Under Lenin's leadership, the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution.
British passenger ship holding Americans that sunk off the coast of Ireland in 1915 by German U-Boats killing 1,198 people. It was decisive in turning public favor against Germany and bringing America into WWI.
unrestricted submarine warfare
During World War I, a German military policy of staging submarine attacks on Allied and neutral nations' unarmed ocean liners without advance warning
Battle of Ypres (1914)
A World War One battle where poison gas was be used, by the Germans, for the first time. British-French fought hard to close the gap.
Used by the Germans at Ypres. It destroyed the lining of the lungs and led to a slow death. Allies used masks made of cotton pads, soaked with urine, for limited protection.
Treaty of Versailles
A treaty created by the Allied Powers: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop World War I (WWI). The treaty 1) denied Germany the right to organize any military forces, 2) Germany had pay reparations (repay) war damages (33 billion dollars at the time), 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI, 4) Germany had to cede (give back) territories it had gained prior to and during the war.
July 28, 1914
World War I began in Europe when Austria declared war on Serbia
England and France's attempt to take over the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) by te way of Dardanelles Strait. unsuccessful
Failure of the Balkan Front
This was an attempt by the Allies to get supplies to Russia; It's failure was a cause of Russia's withdrawl from the war
Battle of Jutland
was a naval battle between the British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet and the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet during the First World War
what Issues were forced to the west
allies in Somme campaign and Germans at Verdun (1916). Unsuccessful
Leader of the provisional government in Russia after the fall of the tsar; kept Russia in World War I and resisted major reforms; overthrown by Bolsheviks at the end of 1917.
leader of the Bolsheviks; believed that only violent revolution could destroy the capitalist system; spent most of his time abroad; saw an opportunity for the Bolsheviks to seize power; shipped to Russia and he and his associated were in a sealed train to prevent their ideas from infecting Germany; his arrival in RUssia opened a new stage of the Russian Revolution; maintained that the soviets of soldiers, workers, and peasants were ready- made instruments of power; believed that the Bolsheviks should work toward gaining control of these groups and then use them to overthrow the provisional government; turned over the power of the provisional government to the COngress of Soviets; the real power however was released to lenin; promised peace but realized this would not be easy; signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany and gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic Province
President of the US during WWI. Tried to stay nuetral during the war but eventually joined on the side of the Allied Powers because of the attacks on American passenger cruiseliners by German submarines called "U-boats"
the last Russian tsar. Wanted supreme rule of army and government. Led the armies to defeat. Forced to abdicate in 1917 in Duma
Erich von Ludendorff
Guided German military operations, decided to make one final military gamble—a grand offensive in the west to break the military stalemate. "Michael" offensive.
The German attack was launched in March 1918. By April, German troops were within about 50 miles (80 km) of Paris. However, the German advance was stopped at the Second Battle of the Marne on July 18. French, Moroccan, and American troops (140,000 fresh American troops had just arrived), supported by hundreds of tanks, threw the Germans back over the Marne. Ludendorff's gamble had failed.
With more than a million American troops pour- ing into France, Allied forces began a steady advance toward Germany. On September 29, 1918, General Ludendorff informed German leaders that the war was lost. He demanded that the government ask for peace at once.
Was the democratic government which ruled over Germany form 1919 to 1933. Was Germany's first democracy and it failed miserably. It had leaders such as Stresseman and Hindenburg.
Treaty of Brest-litovsk
Treaty between Bolsheviks and Germans to get Russia out of the war. 1) Russia lost 1/3 of her population. 2) height of German success in WWI. Signed by Lenin.
1918. 'kicked off' Ludendorff's spring offensive of 1918. He was trying to win the war before US fully deployed. Operation would have been successful if tropps concentrated on seizing Amiens but he commanded them to spread out in different directions. Failed
Amiens and Argoone Forest
What battles was fought in August of 1918? Break through fo " rolling up the lines".
It was Wilson's peace plan. Each of the points were designed to prevent future wars. He compromised each point at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The only point which remained was the 14th (League of Nations). Each one was appealing to a specific group in the war and each one held a specific purpose.
League of Nations
A union of countries formed in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles to uphold peace, security and promote settlements by arbitration.
Also called the Paris Peace Conference. It was a meeting of victorious nations to write terms for the peace following World War I. Almost all Allied Powers sent representatives. Russia, having left the war and was then in the midst of a civil war, was not invited. Representatives of the defeated Central Powers played no role in writing the terms of the treaties. The conference was dominated by the leaders of the three most powerful Allies--Great Britain, France, and the United States.
part of Germany; according to the Treaty of Versailles, it was demilitarized area
Henry Cabot Lodge
a Republican who disagreed with the Versailles Treaty, and who was the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He mostly disagreed with the section that called for the League to protect a member who was being threatened.
supreme commander and French field marshal of the allied armies. Called upon by Clemenceau to the League of Nations. " Good cop, bad cop"
Russian army commander; Sent troops upon St Petersburg against gov't orders; Kerensky seeks help from Bolshevik's to fight off Russian army
March 14, 1917 provision that turned command of army over to committees of elected officials and soldiers in Russia's Provisional Government
"Land, Peace, and Bread"
First Russian Marxism Party
The government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The only mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.
Formed by angry people who wanted to remove the bolsheviks. Backed by the allies. Defeated in 1920 by Reds because they werent as organized.
Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background
the old, re-established Tsarist secret police that hunted down and executed thousands of real or supposed foes, like the tsar and his family, or other "class enemies."
Head of the Cheka
1921. naval mutiny in port. men wanted food. Lenin realized he had to follow through on the promises he made to the people during civil was (food/supplies)
New Economic Policy
Plan introduced by Lenin after the Russian civil war. Essentially it was a tactical retreat from war communism, allowing some private ownership among the peasants to stimulate agrarian production.
Treaty of Rapallo
The 1922 treaty between Germany and Russia that guaranteed mutual assistance in case they were attacked and allowed German weapon development in Russia.
something that is ready for immediate use, generally used in the sale or supply of goods or services
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Created by Lenin in 1922.
Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bukharin, and Stalin
Known as the Big Three
Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Great Britain, Premier Georges Clemenceau of France, and President Woodrow Wilson of the United States.
New nations formed by the Versailes Treaty
Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Yugoslavia
A strip of territory forming part of the new Polish state created in the Versailles settlements. This territory divided Germany into two parts and fuelled German hatred of Versailles and Poland.
a conflict between two political groups within the same country. Russia (Red) vs. Kronstadt (white) Army
Lead German army to victory in battle of Tannanburg and will become President oh the Weimar Republic
July 1 and November 1, 1918 near the Somme River in France, it was also one of the bloodiest military battles in history. On the first day alone, the British suffered more than 57,000 casualties, and by the end of the campaign the Allies and Central Powers would lose more than 1.5 million men.
Battle of Verdun
Battle fought between French and German armies from February to December 1916; more than 700,000 people died - one of the most costly battles of the WWI.
WWI german ace shot 80 planes down
WWI French Ace
Socialism in one country
Policy adopted by Stalin in the autumn of 1924, in which the notion of a worldwide socialist revolution was abandoned in
favor of making the Soviet Union a successful socialist state.
Who Stalin wanted to replace Trotsky
General secretary ofter Trotsky replaced by Voroshilov
Creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings; allowed more efficient control over peasants; part of Stalin's economic and political planning; often adopted in other Communist regimes.
The new German republic the in 1921 owed 33 billion annually to the allied reparations commission. In order to recover from its severe economic issues the annual fees were reduced each year depending on the level of German economic prosperity and Germany received large loans each year from the United States.
German chancellor after WWI who was a left-wing Social Democrat
-named a provisional gov.
Ludendorff, after suffering a nervous breakdown, was replaced by ____.
Also known as the Sprtacist League, was a left wing Marxist movement organized in Germany, organized both during and after WWI.
Germany military (mostly volunteer troops) used by the government of the Weimar republic 2) put down Spartacist revolt in 1919
1920 armed conservative insurrection that temporarily caused the German government to flee and resulted in workers' strikes
prime minister of France who would not accept German reparation payment moratorium unlike the British; decided had to either call Germany's bluff or see the entire peace settlement dissolve to France's disadvantage; send armies in Jan 1923 to occupy Ruhr district
Germanys cheif industrial mining center, allies threatened to occupy it if ger,amy did not accept the reparations settlement; french sent troops to occupy German territory
When the German economy tried to print bills to pay off their debt, inflation rates of 40% a day
leader of Nazi's, organize his supporters into fighting squads, had an obsession with extreme nationalism, racism and antisemitism, promised to end reparations, create jobs and defy the Versailles treaty
prejudice against Jews
discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race
German writer who attacked democracy, Christianity and science, advocated a return to the heroism he associated with the Greeks
[ Nietzsche ] Also known as Overman, who would embody horoism and greatness. However, he was critical of racism and anti-semitism.
leader of Nazi's, organize his supporters into fighting squads, had an obsession with extreme nationalism, racism and antisemitism, promised to end reparations, create jobs and defy the Versailles treaty
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
the study of hereditary improvement of human beings by controlled breeding
The National Socialist German Workers' Party, the full title of the Nazi Party. The party grew rapidly in support from 1928 onwards, to become the most popular political party in Germany at the time when Hitler came to power.
Rohm, Goering, Hess, Himmler
Part of Hitler's inner circle
"Beer Hall Putsch"
Hitler's attempt, in 1923, to overthrow the Weimar Republic when he fired his pistol in the ceiling of a Munich beer hall.
__________ was primarily responsible for the reconstruction of the Weimar republic and for giving it a sense of self-confidence.
German military leader who participated at the 2nd Marne. Later, sues the Kaiser for peace, and Wilhelm then abdicated the throne
Used by the Nazis and other opponents of the democratic Weimar Republic to describe the people who claimed that Germany lost World War I because the Jews and Communists had plotted against them from within.
Hitler's book My Fight. He wrote this while he was in arrest after leading an uprising in Feldherrnhalle and is his idea of what Germany should be. He wanted the conservative Bavarian government to fight the red government. This is the beginning of the Nazi movement.
A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.
He was the Chancellor in Germany. His answer to the Depression was to cut spending and raise taxes, but it didn't work and made it worse.
German propaganda minister in Nazi Germany who persecuted the Jews (1897-1945)
Jewish Bolshevik Conspiracy
206 NSDAP and 97 KPD in 1932
The head of the SD
First commandant of Dachau, sets up the model for camp adminstration
a concentration camp for Jews created by the Nazis near Munich in southern Germany
the secret state police in Nazi Germany
" Night of the Long Knives"
June, 30, 1934. On this night, Hitler sent his elite guards (Schutzstaffel/ SS/ black shirts) to kill the Storm Troopers, led by Ernst Röhm, and other non-Nazi political opponents.
Nazi term for the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce; tried to eliminate individualism by forcing everybody to adhere to a specific doctrine and way of thinking and to control as many aspects of life as possible using an invasive police force
a region in western Germany that is rich in coal... the French throw in the Treaty of Versailles that all coal produced here is the property of France.
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
Minister of war under Hitler gave Himmler and the SS freedom to commit war crimes in the East
Nazi foreign minister, was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945. He was later hanged for war crimes after the Nuremberg Trials.
Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.
The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938.
an area in western Czechoslovakia that was coveted by Hitler
was a leader of the Czechoslovak independence movement, Minister of Foreign Affairs and the second President of Czechoslovakia. He was known to be a skilled diplomat.
French premier who forced the Czechs to agree to the separation by threatening to abandon them if they did not
British statesman who as Prime Minister pursued a policy of appeasement toward fascist Germany (1869-1940)
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
This pact was signed by Hitler and Stalin on August 23, 1939. It allowed Hitler to attack Poland without fear of an attack from Russia. This pact helped spur the start of World War II.
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class.
1st five year plan
A plan to put the Soviet Union's economy under control, commanded economy, Stalin set high production goals along with bonuses for workers who fulfilled them
a Russian prison camp for political prisoners
groups of people (or troops)
former close collaborator with Stalin; head of the party in Leningrad, murdered in 1934
Head of the NKVD in 1934
Ordered to find the plot of Zinoviev and Kamenev
Later fired and replaced by Yezhov
head of Red Army, victim of Stalin purges
Finns resisted Russian demands on border territory and military access. Russiand attacked in November of 1939. West sympathized with the Finns. Soviets were expelled from the League of Nations (only nation to be). Britain sent equipment and supplies to Finns. Russo-Finnish War ended March, 1940. Finland yielded even more territory but kept independence.
someone who collaborates with an enemy occupying force
Battle of Britian
1940-41- Series of bombing raids launched against British cities by the German air force
Hurricane and spitfire
City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. Today Volgograd. (p. 793)
Nazi strike forces that killed innocent Jews with their infamous "death squads"
A deep ravine outside the Ukrainian city of Kiev, where the Einsatzgruppen murdered and buried close to 34,000 Jews over the course of two days (September 29-30, 1941
A meeting in which the "Final solution" and use of concentration camps were decided in 1942, Heydrich was the chief executor of the "Final Solution". Held in Wannsee, Berlin
First extermination camp opened in late December 1941 in incorporated western Poland (the Wartheland), where the SS, using special mobile gas vans, killed Jews from Lodz and Poznan provinces as well as Austrian Gypsies who had been incarcerated in the Lodz ghetto
Nazi killing center located in eastern Poland. It opened in March 1942 and closed in December 1942. More than 600,000 persons, overwhelmingly Jews,, were murdered there, initially in gas vans and later in gas chambers.
Death camp in Poland where about 250,000 Jews died in gas chambers. in 1943 it was blown up by prisoners who then escaped but most were caught and killed
was a extermination camp. They would gas the prisoners right away making it at first seem as a shower. They would pile the bodies into mass graves of crematories. The other option was to help with the killing process if they thought you were strong enough.
This was the Nazi program created to kill the mentally ill in Germany and German occupied territories. There was a written order given by Hitler authorizing euthanasia killings. Approximately 70,000 killed from September 1939-August 1941. This was done to enhance the purity of the Aryan racial community. It relates to negative eugenics in the fact that the Nazi party tried to do away with anyone that would not produce the best Aryan blood. Physicians and policemen were jointly in charge of killing those disabled people in institutions. The Nazis supported doing away with those "lives unworthy of living". These disabled people, even when sterilized, cost the state money and filled spaces that could be used for other things. The churches didn't oppose this issue, because they (Catholic Church) made exceptions for euthanasia killings. This is also significant because it was the first killings in which a gas was used to kill a large group of people at one time. This method of killing is a direct antecedent of gas chamber killing in concentration camps.
nickname for murder of all Jews in Poland
Killing Center and concentration camp on the outskirts of Lublin, About 500,000 Jew, Poles, and Soviet prisoners brought to the camp between October 1941 and July 1944. 150,000 Jews were killed here.
Nazi extermination camp in Poland, the largest center of mass murder during the Holocaust. Close to a million Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and others were killed there.
a death camp, part of Auschwitz
In charge at Auschwitz
He was a German Doctor, Horrible experiments on prisioners at concentration camps; Dr. Death.
Austrian who became the Nazi official who administered the concentration camps where millions of Jews were murdered during World War II (1906-1962)
Jewish inmates disposing of bodies in camps. They were usually killed themselves within a month or two
The main Austrian death camp was ____.