apex of the lung
Tip or uppermost portion of the lung. An apex is the tip of a structure. Apical means pertaining to "at" the apex.
base of the lung
Lower portion of the lung; from the Greek basis, foundation. Basilar means pertaining to the base.
bronchus (plural: bronchi)
Branch of the trachea "windpipe" that is a passageway into the lung; bronchial tube.
carbon dioxide (CO2)
Gas produced by body cells when oxygen and food combine; exhaled through the lungs.
Thin hairs attached to the mucous membrane epithelium lining the respiratory tract. They clear bacteria and foreign substances from the lung. Cigarette smoke impairs the function of cilia.
Muscle separating the chest and abdomen. It contracts and relaxes to make breathing possible.
Lid-like piece of cartilage that covers the larynx, preventing food from entering the larynx and trachea during swallowing.
hilum "of lung"
Midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lungs. Hilar means pertaining to "at" the hilum.
Region between the lungs in the chest cavity. It contains the trachea, heart, aorta, esophagus, and bronchial tubes.
One of a pair of almond-shaped masses of lymphatic tissue in the oropharynx "palatine means pertaining to the roof of the mouth".
Essential parts of the lung, responsible for respiration; bronchioles and alveoli.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Chronic condition of persistent obstruction of air flow through bronchial tubes and lungs. COPD is caused by smoking, air pollution, chronic infection, and in a minority of cases, asthma. Patients with predominant chronic bronchitis COPD are referred to as "blue bloaters" "cyanotic, stocky build", whereas those with predominant emphysema are called "pink puffers" "short of breath, but with near-normal blood oxygen levels, and no change in skin color".
Failure of the right side of the heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood to the lungs because of underlying lung disease.
Fluid, cells, and other substances "pus" that filter from cells or capillaries ooze into lesions or areas of inflammation.
Collection of fluid or other material within the lung, as seen on a chest film, CT scan, or other radiologic image.