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reproductive system, male

What is the gonad in the male reproductive system?

Testes

The testes have both endocrine and exocrine functions. Describe the endocrine and exocrine products that come from the testes.

Endocrine function is where the testosterone is produced in the interstitial cells. The exocrine function is the production of spermatozoa which is produced by the seminiferous tubules.

Proper sperm production must occur at what temperature?

95 degrees Fahrenheit

Male sterility can result from excessively high temperatures around the testes. What mechanisms counteract the effects of high temperature?

Cremaster Muscle and the dartos muscle

What structure of the testis produces spermatozoa?

Seminiferous tubules in the testis.

What cells initiate spermatozoa production?

Spermatogonia

Where does sperm move after being in the epididymis?

Ductus deferens

Where is the cremaster muscle found?

It is found in the inguinal canal and scrotum between the external and internal layers of spermatic fascia, surrounding the testis and spermatic cord, or part of the crematic cord.

List all the structures involved in producing semen.

Testes, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and the bulbourethral glands.

A vasectomy in the cutting and tying of the two ductus deferens at the level of the spermatic cords. Review the percent of spermatozoa that composes semen and determine what effect a vasectomy has on semen volume.

No effect on semen volume.

Which one of the seminal fluid glands is not a paired gland?

Prostate (single gland)

Name the three sections of the urethra and where they occur.

Prostatic urethra- through the prostate
Membranous urethra- through the body wall
Spongy urethra- Inside the penis

Where is the glans penis located?

Expanded portion of the corpus spongiosum at the distal end of the penis.

What is the cylinder of erectile tissue below the corpora cavernosa?

Corpus spongiosum

What is the gonad in the female reproductive system?

Ovaries

What is the inner layer of the uterus called?

Endometrium

What happens to estrogen and progesterone levels just prior to menstruation?

They decrease

The ovaries attach to the uterus by what structure?

Ovarian ligament

What three hormones are at elevated levels just prior to ovulation?

Estrogen, LH, FSH

Where is the fornix in the female reproductive system?

Recessed area in the superior vaginal tract near the cervix

Which is more anterior, the urethral opening or the clitoris?

Clitoris

What is the background substance of the ovary called?

Stroma

What is the name for the expulsion of the secondary oocyte from the ovary?

Ovulation

What is the deepest layer of the endometrium called?

Basal layer

What is the name of the part of the breast that is near the shoulder?

Axillary tail

What are the milk-producing glands of the breast called?

Mammary glands

A zygote is formed from the fusion of what two cells?

Sperm cell and secondary oocyte

Embryonic tissue consists of three layers. What are these called?

Endoderm, mesoderm, and exoderm

What is a morula?

Solid cluster of pre-embryonic cells

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