FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Chapter 12

Created by acediaz 

Upgrade to
remove ads

INTERNAL ORGANS

ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia.

EXTERNAL GENITALIA

collectively known as the VULVA or the PUDENDUM. Structures include: labia minora, labia majora, clitoris, Bartholin glands, and mons pubis.

GESTATION

length of time from conception to birth. The human gestational period typically extends approximately 280 days from the last menstrual period. Gestation (pregnancy) of less than 36 weeks is regarded as premature.

LACTATION

the production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands

ORIFICE

mouth; entrance or outlet of any anatomical structure

PUERPERIUM

aka postpartum. Period that begins immediately after birth of the baby and continues for 6 weeks or until the woman's body has nearly returned to a prepregnant state.

OVA

are the female reproductive cells.

OVARIES
OOPHOR/O
OVARI/O

are almond-shaped glands located in the pelvic cavity, one on each side of the uterus.

Oophor/o - ovaries
Ovari/o - ovaries

FALLOPIAN TUBES
SALPHING/O

catch the mature ovum (egg) and transport it to the uterus. Also the site of fertilization.

Salphing/o - fallopian tube

HYSTER/O
METR/O
METRI/O
UTER/O

means uterus

UTERUS

A hollow, inverted pear-shaped muscular organ in the pelvic cavity of the female, in which the embryo is nourished and develops before birth. Normally in a position of ANTEFLEXION (bent forward) and has 3 parts: FUNDUS, BODY, and CERVIX.

VAGINA
VAGIN/O
COLP/O

is a muscular tube lined with mucosa that extends from the cervix to the exterior of the body. Its lining consists of folds of mucous membrane that give the organ an elastic quality. Used for sexual intercourse, acts as channel for menstrual flow, and functions as the birth canal.
Vagin/o, Colp/o - means vagina

PLACENTA
PLACENT/O

exchanges nutrients and waste between the mother and fetus during pregnancy.
Placent/o - placenta

MONS PUBIS

- is a rounded, fleshy prominence located over the pubic symphysis.
- Is an elevation of adipose tissue covered by skin and coarse pubic hair that cushions the pubis (pubic bone).

LABIA MAJORA
LABIA MINORA
Labium (singular)

are the vaginal lips that protect the other external genitalia and the urethral meatus.

CLITORIS

is an organ of sensitive, erectile tissue located anterior to the urethral meatus and the vaginal orifice.

BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS

produce a mucus secretion to lubricate the vagina. These two small, round glands are located on either side of the vaginal orifice.

VAGINAL ORIFICE

is the exterior opening of the vagina. Orifice means opening.

HYMEN

is a mucous membrane that partially covers this opening (vaginal orifice) before a woman has had intercourse. However, this tissue can be absent in a woman who has not been sexually active.

BREASTS
Mamm/o
Mast/o

are made of up of fat, connective tissue, and the mammary glands.
Mamm/o and Mast/o - means breasts

MAMMARY GLANDS

aka LACTIFEROUS GLANDS, are the milk-producing glands that develop during puberty.

LACTIFEROUS GLANDS

aka MILK DUCTS, carry milk from the mammary glands to the nipple.
LACT - means milk
-IFEROUS - means carrying or producing

NIPPLE

breast milk flows through this opening.

AREOLA

is the dark-pigmented circular area that surrounds the nipple.

OVARIES

The female gonads, a pair of almond-sized organs located in the pelvic cavity, that produce the sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone).

FOLLICLE

a fluid-filled sac containing a single ovum (egg).

OVA
OVUM - singular

aka EGGS, , the female gametes. These immature ova are present at birth. Normally, after puberty, one ovum matures and is released each month.

FALLOPIAN TUBES

aka UTERINE TUBES, tubes that extend from the upper end of the uterus to a point near, but not attached to, an ovary.

INFUNDIBULUM

the funnel-shaped opening into the fallopian tube near the ovary.

FIMBRIAE
FIMBRIA - singular

are the fringed, finger-like extensions of this opening. Their role is to catch the mature ovum when it leaves the ovary.

FUNDUS

is the bulging, rounded part above the entrance of the fallopian tubes.

BODY

aka CORPUS, the central or middle part of the uterus.

CERVIX

aka NECK OF THE UTERUS or CERVIX UTERI, is the lower, narrow portion that extends into the vagina. The inferior constricted portion that opens into the vagina.

EPISIOTOMY

surgical incision of the perineum to enlarge the vagina to prevent tearing of the tissue and to facilitate delivery during childbirth.

GRAAFIAN FOLLICLES

each ovary contains thousands of tiny, sac like structures each containing an ovum.

SCROTUM

saclike structure that surrounds, protects, and supports the testicles. Suspended from the pubic arch behind the penis and lies between the thighs.

TESTICLES

aka TESTES, are the two small, egg-shaped glands that produce the sperm (singular - Testis).

SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES

where sperm is produced or formed.

EPIDIDYMIS

is a coiled tube at the upper part of each testicle. From the seminiferous tubules, the sperm move into the epididymis where they become motile and are temporarily stored. Each cord contains a vas deferens plus the the arteries, veins, nerves, and lymphatic vessels required by each testicle.

PENIS

is the male sex organ that transports the sperm into the female vagina.

ERECTION

during sexual stimulation, the erectile tissue fills with blood under high pressure. This causes the swelling, hardness, and stiffness knowns as ERECTION.

PENILE - PEN/I
PHALLIC - PHALL/I

relating to penis.

GLANS PENIS

aka HEAD OF THE PENIS, is the sensitive region located at the tip of the penis.

PREPUCE

FORESKIN, is a retractable double-layered fold of skin and mucous membrane that covers and protects the glans penis.

VAS DEFERENS

aka DUCTUS DEFERENS, are the long, narrow continuations of each epididymis. These structures lead upward, eventually join the urethra.

SEMINAL VESICLES

are glands that secrete a thick, yellow substance to nourish the sperm cells. These glands are located at the base of the urinary bladder and open into the vas deferens as it joins the urethra.

EJACULATORY DUCT

which begins at the vas deferens, passes through the prostate gland, and empties into the urethra. During ejaculation, a reflex action caused by these ducts, semen passes into the urethra, which exits the body via the penis.

SEMEN

is the whitish fluid containing the sperm that is ejaculated through the urethra at the peak of male sexual excitement. EJACULATE means expel suddenly.

PROSTATE GLAND

lies under the bladder and surrounds the end of the urethra in the region where the vas deferens enters the urethra. It secretes a thick, alkaline fluid into the semen that aids the motility of the sperm.

BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS

aka COWPER'S GLANDS, two glands that are located just below the prostate gland. Secretes fluid known as PRE-EJACULATE which helps flush out any residual urine or foreign matter in the urethra. It also lubricates the urethra for sperm to pass through. This fluid can contain sperm and is able to cause pregnancy even if ejaculation does not occur.

URETHRA

serves as both the reproductive and the urinary system.

SPERMATOGENESIS
SPERMAT/O - sperm
-GENESIS - creation

is the process of sperm formation. The ideal temperature for sperm formation is 93.2F. And the scrotum aids in maintaining this temperature by adjusting how closely it holds the testicles to the body.

SPERM

aka SPERMATOZOA, are the male gametes which are formed at the seminiferous tubules of the testicles. When sperm moves, the seminal vesicles and prostate gland add their secretions to form semen.

UROLOGIST

is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disease and disorders of the urinary system of the females and the genitourinary system of the males.

BALANITIS

is the inflammation of the glans penis that is usually caused by poor hygiene in men who have not had the foreskin removed by circumcision.

PHIMOSIS

narrowing of the opening of the foreskin so it cannot be retracted or pulled back to expose the glans penis.

IMPOTENCE

aka ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION, inability to achieve or maintain an erection. A penis that is not erect is referred to as being FLACCID (limp).

PEYRONIE'S DISEASE

aka PENILE CURVATURE, is a form of sexual dysfunction in which the penis is bent or curved during erection.

PREMATURE EJACULATION

a condition in which the male reaches climax too soon, usually before, or shortly after, penetration of the female.

ANDROPAUSE
ANDR/O - male
-PAUSE - stopping

which is often referred to as MALE MENOPAUSE, is marked by the decrease o f the male hormone testosterone. This change is also referred to as ADAM (ANDROGEN DECLINE in the AGING MALE).

ANORCHISM
AN- without
ORCH/O - testicle
-ISM - abnormal condition

the absence of one or both testicles. This condition can be congenital or caused by trauma or surgery.

CRYPTORCHIDISM
CRYPT/O - hidden
ORCHID/O - testicle
-ISM - abnormal condition

aka UNDESCENDED TESTICLE,, a developmental defect in which one or both of the testicles fail to descend into the normal position in the scrotum.

EPIDIDYMITIS

inflammation of the epididymis that is frequently caused by the spread of infection from the urethra or the bladder.

HYDROCELE

a fluid-filled sac in the scrotum along the spermatic cord leading from the testicles.

PRIAPRISM

is a painful erection that lasts 4 hours or more but is not accompanied by sexual excitement. The condition can be caused by medication or by blood-related diseases such as sickle cell anemia or leukemia.

SPERMATOCELE

a cyst that develops in the epididymis and is filled with a milky fluid containing sperm.

TESTICULAR CANCER

most common cancer in males between ages 15 and 34 years malignant tumor of the testis.

TESTICULAR PAIN

aka ORCHALGIA, is pain in one or both testicles can be due to an unjury, testicular torsion , epididymitis or spermatocele.

TESTICULAR TORSION

is a sharp pain in the scrotum caused by twisting of the vas deferens and blood vessels leading into the testicle. TORSION means twisting.

TESTITIS

aka orchitis, inflammation of one or both testicles.

VARICOCELE

A knot of varicose veins in one side of the scrotum. Varicose veins are abnormally swollen veins.

NORMAL SPERM COUNT

is 20−120 million or more sperm per milliliter (ml) of semen.

AZOOSPERMIA
A - without
ZOO - life
SPERM/O - sperm
-IA - abnormal condition

absence of sperm in the semen.

OLIGOSPERMIA

low sperm count

HEMOSPERMIA

presence of blood in the seminal fluid which can be from infections of the seminal vesicles, prostatitis, urethritis, or urethral strictures.

SPERM ANALYSIS

aka SPERM COUNT, , the testing of freshly ejaculated semen to determine the volume plus the number, shape, size, and motility of the sperm.

TESTICULAR SELF-EXAMINATION

a self-help step in early detection of testicular cancer by detecting lumps, swelling, or changes in the skin of the scrotum

CIRCUMCISION

is the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis. This is usually performed within a few days of birth.

ORCHIDECTOMY

also spelled, ORCHIECTOMY, is the surgical removal of one or both testicles.

ORCHIOPEXY

is endoscopic surgery to move an undescended testicle into its normal position in the scrotum. This is usually performed on infants before the age of 1 year.

VARICOCELECTOMY
VARIC/O means varicose vein
CEL - swelling
-ECTOMY - surgical removal

is the removal of a portion of an enlarged vein to relieve a varicocele.

STERILIZATION

is any procedure rendering an individual (male or female) incapable of reproduction.

CASTRATION

aka BILATERAL ORCHIDECTOMY, , surgical removal or destruction of both testicles.

VASECTOMY

male sterilization procedure that involves removing a section from each vas deferens. This prevents sperm from entering the ejaculate, but does not change the volume of semen.

VASOVASOSTOMY

aka VASECTOMY REVERSAL, is a procedure performed as an attempt to restore fertility to a vasectomized male.

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE (STDs)

aka VENEREAL DISEASES (VD), , infections transmitted by sexual or other genital contact.

OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM

a condition that is a form of conjunctivitis caused by bacteria from chlamydia or gonorrhea (newborns can get from mother during birth). For this reason, all newborns receive one drop of silver nitrate or an antibiotic ointment in each eye immediately after birth to prevent this.

CHLAMYDIA

which is caused by the bacterium CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS, is the most commonly reported STD in the US. It is highly contagious and requires early treatment with antibiotics. In females, it can damage the reproductive organs, where serious complications can cause irreversible damage, including infertility. In males, it can cause urethritis.

BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS

a condition in women in which there is an abnormal overgrowth of certain bacteria in the vagina. This condition can cause complications during pregnancy and an increased risk of HIV infection. Symptoms include a discharge, odor, pain, itching or burning.

GENITAL HERPES

or CONDYLOMAS are caused by HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2. Symptoms include itching or burning before the appearance of lesions (sores). This is a highly contagious even when visible lesions are not present also called VIRAL SHEDDING.

GENITAL WARTS

which are caused by the HUMAN PAPILOMA VIRUS (HPV), are highly contagious. In male, the virus infects the urethra. In female, it infects the external genitalia, cervix, and vagina. It also increases the risk of cervical cancer.

HUMAN PAPILOMA VIRUS VACCINE

is available to prevent the spread of the disease. It is recommended that it be administered to girls between the ages 11 and 12 or before they become sexually active.

GONORRHEA

a highly contagious condition caused by the bacterium NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE. Most common symptom of gonorrhea is a greenish, yellow cervical discharge, inflammation of the urethra (urethritis), painful urination (dysuria). It involves the mucosal surface of the genitourinary tract, and possibly, the rectum and pharynx.

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)

transmitted through exposure to infected body fluids, particularly through sexual intercourse with an infected partner.

SYPHILIS

caused by the bacterium, spirochete, TREPONEMA PALLIDUM. Highly contagious and is passed from person to person through direct contact with CHANCRE, which is a sore caused by syphillis. This condition can be detected through the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) blood test before the lesions appear. The RPR TEST (Rapid Plasma Reagin) is another blood test for syphillis.

TRICHOMONIASIS

aka TRICH, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS. One of the most common symptoms is thin, frothy, yellow-green, foul-smelling vaginal discharge. Infected men often do not have symptoms, however, when symptoms are present, they include painful urination or a clear discharge from the penis.

TISSUES OF THE UTERUS

It is composed of three major layers of tissues: perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium.

PERIMETRIUM
PERI - surrounding
METRI/O - uterus
-UM - is a singular noun ending

the tough, membranous outer layer of the uterus. MEMBRANOUS means pertaining to a thin layer of tissue.

MYOMETRIUM

is the muscular middle layer.

ENDOMETRIUM

which is the inner layer of the uterus, consists of specialized epithelial mucosa that is rich in blood vessels.

MENSTRUATION

aka MENSES, is the normal periodic discharge of the endometrial lining and unfertilized egg from uterus.

MENARCHE

is the beginning of the menstrual function. This function begins after the maturation that occurs during puberty.

MENSTRUAL CYCLE

consists of 28 days. These are grouped into four phases: Menstrual phase, Postmentrual phase, Ovulatory phase, and Premenstrual phase.

MENSTRUAL PHASE

Days 1 to 5, when the endometrial lining of the uterus sloughed off and discharged through the vagina as the menstrual flow.

POSTMENTRUAL PHASE

days 6 to 12. The pituitary gland secretes FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), causing an ovum to mature. Estrogen, which is secreted by the ovaries, stimulates the lining of the uterus to prepare itself to receive a zygote (fertilized egg).

OVULATORY PHASE

days 13 to 14. On or about, the 13th or 14th day of the cycle ovulation occurs. Ovulation is the release of a mature ovum. The mature egg leaves the ovary and travels slowly down the fallopian tube toward the uterus. During this time, the female is fertile and can become pregnant.

PREMENSTRUAL PHASE

days 15 to 28. If fertilization does not occur, hormone levels change to cause the breakdown of the uterine endometrium and the beginning of a new menstrual cycle.

MENOPAUSE

aka CHANGE OF LIFE or CLIMACTERIC, normal termination of the menstrual function and ovarian activity at about age 50. Menopause is considered to be confirmed when a woman has gone 1 year without having a period. The women experience hot flashes and vaginal drying and thinning (VAGINAL ATROPHY) as estrogen levels fall.

PERIMENOPAUSE

the term used to designate the transition phase between regular menstrual periods and no periods at all. During this phase, which can last as long as 10 years, changes in hormone production can cause symptoms including irregular menstrual cycles, hot flashes, mood swings, and disturbed sleep.

GYNECOLOGIST

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system.

OBSTETRICIAN

a physician who specializes in providing medical care to women during pregnancy, childbirth, and immediately thereafter. This specialty is referred to as obstetrics.

NEONATOLOGIST

physician who in diagnosing and treating disorders of the newborn.

PEDIATRICIAN

a physician who specializes in diagnosing, treating, and preventing disorders and diseases of children.

ANOVULATION

the absence of ovulation when it would be normally expected.

OOPHORITIS

inflammation of an ovary. This condition frequently occurs when salpingtis or pelvic inflammatory disease are present.

OVARIAN CANCER

originates within the cells of the ovaries. These cancer cells can break away from the ovary and spread or metastasize to other tissues and organs within the abdomen or travel through the blood stream to other parts of the body.

OVARIORRHEXIS
OVARI/O - ovary
-RRHEXIS - means rupture

is the rupture of an ovary.

PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE (PID)

a general term for inflammation of the uterus fallopian tubes, ovaries, and adjacent pelvic structures and is usually caused by bacterial infection. Two most common causes of PID are gonorrhea and chlamydia which are STDs and can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and other serious disorders.

POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

aka STEIN-LEVENTHAL SYNDROME, , a condition caused by a hormonal imbalance in which the ovaries are enlarged by the presence of many cysts formed by incompletely developed follicles.

PYOSALPINX

is an accumulation of pus in the fallopian tube.

SALPINGITIS

is an inflammation of the fallopian tube.

ENDOMETRIOSIS

condition in which patches of endometrial tissue escape the uterus and become attached to other structures in the pelvic cavity. It is a leading cause of infertility. The endometrial tissue develops into what are called IMPLANTS, LESIONS, or GROWTHS.

METRORRHEA

an abnormal discharge, such as mucus or pus, from the uterus.

UTERINE CANCER

involves cancerous growth on the lining of the uterus. One of the earliest symptoms of this cancer that frequently occurs after menopause is abnormal bleeding from the uterus.

UTERINE FIBROIDS

It develops slowly between ages 25 to 40. Some individuals are asymptomatic. When present they include menorrhagia, backache, constipation, and urinary symptoms. Can also cause metrorrhagia and sterility. Should be removed if it causes pain, pressure, menorrhagia or metrorrhagia.

UTERINE FIBROIDS
FIBR/O - fiber, fibrous tissue
-OIDS - resembling

benign uterine tumors composed of muscle and fibrous tissue; also called LEIOMYOMAS (MYOMAS) and FIBROMYOMATA UTERI. Myomectomy or hysterectomy may be indicated if the fibroids grow too large, causing such symptoms as metrorrhagia, pelvic pain, and menorrhagia.

UTERINE PROLAPSE

aka PELVIC FLOOR HERNIA, , condition in which the uterus slides from its normal position in the pelvic cavity and sags into the vagina.

CERVICAL CANCER

second most common cancer in women and usually affects women between ages of 45 to 49. All of the following appear to increase the risk of cervical cancer: coitus at a young age, large number of sex partners, infection with certain sexually transmitted viruses, and frequent intercourse with men whose previous partners had cervical cancer. Routine Pap test can detect cervical cancer.

CERVICAL DYSPLASIA

aka PRECANCEROUS LESIONS, , growth of abnormal cells in the cervix, which can be detected by a Pap smear. Without early detection and treatment, these cells can become malignant.

CERVICITIS

inflammation of the cervix that is usually caused by an infection.

ENDOCERVICITIS

Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the cervix.

COLPORRHEXIS

tearing or laceration of the vaginal wall.

LEUKORRHEA

a profuse, whitish mucus discharge from the uterus and vagina. Women normal have a vaginal discharge; however leukorrhea describes a change and increase in this discharge that can be due to an infection, malignancy, or hormonal changes.

VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS

aka, MONILIASIS, VAGINAL THRUSH, or a YEAST INFECTION, a vaginal infection caused by the yeast-like fungus CANDIDA ALBICANS. Symptoms include burning, itching, and a "cottage-cheese-like" vaginal discharge. Steroid therapy, diabetes, or pregnancy may cause a change in the vaginal environment that disrupts the normal flora and promote overgrowth resulting in YEAST (FUNGAL) infection.

VAGINITIS

aka COLPITIS, is an inflammation of the lining of the vagina. The most common causes of a vaginal inflammation are bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vaginal candidiasis.

PRURITIS VULVAE

Severe itching of the external female genitalia.

VULVODYNIA

a syndrome of unknown cause that is characterized by chronic burning, pain during sexual intercourse, itching, or stinging irritation of the vulva.

VULVITIS

inflammation of the vulva - possible causes: fungal or bacterial infections, chafing, skin conditions, or allergies to products such as soaps and bubble bath.

FIBROADENOMA

a round, firm, rubbery mass that arises from excess growth of glandular and connective tissue in the breast. These masses, which can grow to the size of a small plum, are benign and usually painless. They often enlarge during pregnancy and shrink during menopause.

FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE

the presence of single or multiple benign cysts in the breasts which occurs more frequently in older women.

GALACTORRHEA

the production of breast milk in a women who is not breastfeeding. This condition is caused by a malfunction of the thyroid or pituitary gland.

MASTALGIA

aka MASTODYNIA, pain in the breast.

MASTITIS

a breast infection that is most frequently caused by bacteria that enter the breast tissue during breastfeeding.

AMENORRHEA

an abnormal absence of menstrual periods for 3 or more months. This is normal only before puberty, during pregnancy, while breastfeeding and after menopause.

HYPERMENORRHEA

aka MENORRHAGIA, , excessive amount of menstrual flow over a period of more than 7 days.

HYPOMENORRHEA

An unusually small amount of menstrual flow during a shortened regular menstrual period.

MENOMETRORRHAGIA

aka INTERMENSTRUAL BLEEDING, excessive uterine bleeding at both the usual time of menstrual periods and at other irregular intervals

OLIGOMENORRHEA

the term used to describe infrequent or very light menstruation in a women with previously normal periods.

POLYMENORRHEA

the occurrence of menstrual cycles more frequently than is normal.

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set