Chapter 45 Hormones and the Endocrine System

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Campbell & Reece 8th edition test question

Which of the following statements about hormones is incorrect?

They are used to communicate between different organisms.

The secretion of hormone A causes a change in the amount of protein X in an organism. If this mechanism works by positive feedback, which of the following statements represents that fact?

An increase in A produces an increase in X.

Which of the following is (are) true?

Hormones regulate cellular functions, and generally negative feedback regulates hormone levels.

What do nitric oxide and epinephrine have in common?

They both function as neurotransmitters. & They both function as hormones.

Substance X is secreted by one cell, travels a short distance through interstitial fluid, and produces an effect in a cell immediately adjacent to the original secreting cell. All of the following terms could describe this substance except

pheromone.

Which of the following is a local regulator responsible for activating an enzyme that relaxes smooth muscle cells?

nitric oxide

Prostaglandins are local regulators whose basic structure is derived from

fatty acids.

Which of the following examples is incorrectly paired with its class?

prostaglandin-peptide hormone

What is the mode of action of aspirin and ibuprofen?

They inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins.

A cell that contains proteins enabling a hormone to selectively bind to its plasma membrane is called a(n)

target cell.

Only certain cells in the body are target cells for the steroid hormone aldosterone. Which of the following is the best explanation for why these are the only cells that respond to this hormone?

Only target cells contain receptors for aldosterone.

Why is it that some body cells respond differently to the same peptide hormones?

A target cellʹs response is determined by the product of a signal transduction pathway.

Which of the following statements about hormones is incorrect?

They travel through a dedicated pathway.

Which of the following statements about hormones is incorrect?

They are produced only by organs called endocrine organs.

Which of the following does not represent a chemical signal?

movement of a signal from one end of a nerve to the other end of the nerve

Hormone X produces its effect in its target cells via the cAMP second messenger system. Which of the following will produce the greatest effect in the cell?

a molecule of hormone X applied to the extracellular fluid surrounding the cell

Which of the following statements about hormones is correct?

Steroid hormones affect the synthesis of proteins, whereas peptide hormones affect the activity of proteins already present in the cell.

Which of the following statements about hormones that promote homeostasis is incorrect?

This response feeds back to promote the release of more hormone.

Which of the following are not part of homeostasis promotion or maintenance?

A hormone is involved in a positive feedback loop.

When an individual is subject to short-term starvation, most available food is used to provide energy (metabolism) rather than building blocks (growth and repair). Which hormone would be particularly active in times of food shortage?

glucagon

Based on their effects, which pair below could be considered antagonistic?

prostaglandin F and nitric oxide

The endocrine system and the nervous system are structurally related. Which of the following cells best illustrates this relationship?

a neurosecretory cell in the hypothalamus

The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary by means of

releasing hormones.

Short blood vessels connect two capillary beds lying in which of the following?

hypothalamus and anterior pituitary

Oxytocin and ADH are produced by the __________ and stored in the __________.

hypothalamus; neurohypophysis

If a person drinks a large amount of water in a short period of time, he or she may die from water toxicity. ADH can help prevent water retention through interaction with target cells in the

kidney.

Which of the following statements about the hypothalamus is incorrect?

It secretes tropic hormones that act directly on the gonads.

Which combination of hormones helps a mother to produce milk and nurse her baby?

oxytocin and prolactin

Prolactin stimulates mammary gland growth and development in mammals and regulates salt and water balance in freshwater fish. Many scientists think that this wide range of functions indicates which of the following?

Prolactin is an evolutionary conserved hormone.

Which of the following have nontropic effects only?

MSH

The star of a recent movie was a caterpillar that never matured into an adult. It simply got larger with each molt. What is the probable reason why the caterpillar did not mature into an adult?

increased level of juvenile hormone

Synthetic versions of which of the following hormones are being used as insecticides to prevent insects from maturing into reproducing adults?

juvenile hormone

Iodine is added to commercially-prepared table salt to help prevent deficiencies of this essential mineral. Which gland(s) require(s) iodine to function properly?

thyroid

Tropic hormones from the anterior pituitary directly affect the release of which of the following?

thyroxine

Which of the following endocrine disorders is not correctly matched with the malfunctioning gland?

goiter and adrenal medulla

One reason a person might be severely overweight is due to

an undersecretion of thyroxine.

Which of the following statements about endocrine glands is incorrect?

The parathyroids regulate metabolic rate.

Which of the following is an endocrine gland?

parathyroid gland

Which hormone exerts antagonistic action to PTH (parathyroid hormone)?

calcitonin

Which of the following glands shows both endocrine and exocrine activity?

pancreas

All of the following are steroid hormones except

insulin.

Blood samples taken from an individual who had been fasting for 24 hours would have which of the following?

high levels of glucagon and low levels of insulin

What happens when beta cells of the pancreas release insulin into the blood?

Body cells take up more glucose.

Which of the following endocrine structures are derived from nervous tissue?

posterior pituitary and the adrenal medulla

The endocrine system and the nervous system are chemically related. Which of the following substances best illustrates this relationship?

norepinephrine

Which of the following are synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine?

epinephrine, catecholamines and thyroxin

Which of the following glands is controlled directly by the hypothalamus or central nervous system but not the anterior pituitary?

adrenal medulla

If the adrenal cortex were removed, which group of hormones would be most affected?

steroid

Which of the following statements about the adrenal gland is correct?

During stress, ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex, and neurons of the sympathetic nervous system stimulate the adrenal medulla.

Which of the following hormones is (are) secreted by the adrenal gland in response to stress and promote(s) the synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate substrates?

glucocorticoids

The results most likely occurred because progesterone exerts an effect on the

maintenance of the uterus.

Melatonin has been found to participate in all of the following except

calcium deposition in bone.

Which combination of gland and hormone would be linked to winter hibernation and spring reproduction in bears?

pineal gland, melatonin

Which of the following is a steroid hormone that triggers molting in arthropods?

ecdysone

Which of the following is secreted by the pancreas?

glucagon

Which of the following stimulates and maintains metabolic processes?

thyroxine

Which of the following stimulates the contraction of uterine muscle?

oxytocin

Which of the following is secreted by the anterior pituitary?

growth hormone

Which of the following endocrine structures is (are) not controlled by a tropic hormone from the anterior pituitary?

pancreatic islet cells

Testosterone is an example of

an androgen.

Estradiol is an example of

an estrogen.

Which of the following is secreted by the pineal gland?

melatonin

Epinephrine is an example of

a catecholamine.

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