The mythical ruler of an Africa Christian kingdom that some writers wrote on
The Travels of John Mandeville
About the realms filled with precious stone & gold or other lands that were frightening (great giants, North evil women)
of Venice; Son of Niccolo who with his father and Maffeo who underwent journey to Khubilai Khan's court; wrote Travels that gave Euro travelers' descriptions of Asia
"God, glory, and gold"
Three major motives that explorers & conquerors had for Renaissance expansion.
Charts by medival navigators & mathematicians that included contours, port distance, compass readings, but on a flat scale so it was of les use in longer journeys
An astronomer & writer of Geography which included 1477 spherical world map containing Europe, Asia, Africa, and 2 small oceans; lead many adventurers to think Asia could be reached from Europe
Triangular sails that allowed maneuverability and speed that came to be combined with square rigs' capacity & seaworthiness
Capacious and seaworthy ships that, by sixteenth century, combined with lateen sails for maneuverability and speed
The 16th century new navigation technology that replaced the quadrant
The 16th centruy new navigation technology that replaced the quadrant
Prince Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince established a school for sailors and mapmakers; organized voayges along west coast of Africa so by the time of his death, there were many trading posts w/ thriving business in gold & slaves
the Gold Coast
The source of gold on W. African coast
1488: took advantage of westerly winds in S.Atlantic to round Cape of Good Hope but returned in fear of mutiny
Vasco da Gama
Rounded Cape of Good Hope and stopped at many Muslim ports along E.Africa, crossed Arabian Sea, reached Calicut port,and announced search for Christians and spices; returned with profitable spices
Alfonso de Albuquerque
Set up port facilities at Goa which became Portugal HQ; wanted Malacca control to destroy Muslim controlled Spice Islands
Harbor on Malay peninsula that was a thriving port and major stopping point for spice trade
Moluccas; good source of spices that explorers searched for.
believed circumference is smaller and Asia was bigger & persuaded Queen Isabella to finance; Bahamas to Cuba to Hisanola and reported assurance of gold & Christian conversion; find route in Asia mainland; helped propel Spain into forefront of European exploration
explored New England coast under K. Henry VII
Vaso Nunez de Balboa
explored Isthmus of Panama & reached Pacific Ocean in 1513
1519: passed thro strait named after him, died @ Philippines, but 1st known circumnavigation of earth
Treaty of Tordesillas
1419: divided up newly discovered world into separate Portugese and Spanish where S. America mostly Spanish's. E. route around Cape of God Hope=Portugal & route across Atlantic=Spain
Made ally w/ city-states(Tlaxcala), welcomed by Moctezuma, later revolted against but built up army during Aztec's sickness of smallpox
Aztec monarch who mistaked Cortes for a god and offered him gifts and palace, but was taken hostage
12th A.D. people that migrated into Valley of Mexico @ Tenochtitlan & built things over Lake to connect & bring water; warriors who made semi-indep. territory ruled by local lords that paid tribute to ruler; buildings put into Spanish use @ downfall between 1531-1550
Aztec capital on an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco
High altitude Peru community under Pachakuti who made central state, stone city, expansion; great builders (roads); Realms in quarters ruled by governers who also ruled within realms and were under emperor
One of the 2 sons who claimed the Inca throne at emperor's death leading to civil war
Landed on Pacific coast of S. America with advanced weapons; came upon Incas at civil war & sickness and allied with some Incans to capture Cuzco and establish Lima
A system set up in the New World in which natives were to be protected, paid wages, and supervised spiritually by the Spanish in return for labor and tribute.
Spain began admin system based on these; they were king military officer aided by audiencia in Lima, Peru
Judicial bodies that aided viceroys
Dutch farmers who settled in areas outside Cape Town
Originally in a base to provide food for Dutch Ships to Spice Islands, it became an area of moderate climate and freedom from tropical disease that made it attractive to settlers
slave trade and the Middle Passage
increased with cane sugar demands in Brazil and Caribbean
the triangular trade
connected Europe, Africa, and America as the economy. Merchant ships traded goods for slaves shipped to America and sold, & merchants bought tabacco, sugar, raw cotton, etc. for Europe to be sold
Plantations worked brutally by African slaves, set up by Portugese in Caribbean.
Dutch East India
A trading company established under gov't sponsership
Fort established in 1619 as headquarters of Dutch East India Company operations in INdonesia; today the city of Jakarta.
great empire of Babur(Tamerlane & Genghis's)'s grandson fm. mountains
British East India Company
sing, Same thing as Dutch East India Company but it was made before the DEIC and was in India under British control.
empire-builder & EID rep—secure control in Bengal where the ruler had attacked Fort William & capture Brit pop in "The Black Hole of Calcutta", British general and statesman whose victory at Plassey in 1757 strengthened British control of India (1725-1774)
"Black Hole of Calcutta"
An underground prison for holding the prisoners, many of whom died in captivity
Ruled from 1369 to 1644 under strong rulers who extended rule to Mongolia and C.Asia, Vietnam; Strengthened Great Wall and made peace with nomadic tribesmen; a major epidemic led Li Zicheng to spark peasant revolt at Bejing & overthrow made opportunity for farming Manchus to conquer Beijing
Victorius Manchus over Li Zicheng's army leads to this dynasty who had strong rulers that pacified country in social & economic ills. As military campagins along frontier=$$$ fm. treasury & Europe pressured trade, population growth hurts peasants
Lord Macartney and Emperor Qianlong
A mission under this man to Beijing to free trade limits, and this ruler's uninterest in British products
One of the many powerful individuals who achieved the unification of Japan; initiated the most powerful and longest-lasting of all the Japanese shogunates(general)
Nagasaki and the Dutch
A Dutch community that didn't allow for missionary activities to interfere with thier trade interests; the ships could only dock there once a year and stay for only a few months
British Navigation Acts
Regulated what could be taken from and sold to the colonies. It was a supposed that provided balance of trade favorable to the mother country
Samuel de Champlain
Person who established a settlement at Quebec, Canada, in 1608, when French began more serious interest in Canada as a colony
The right granted to the British following the War of the Spanish Succession, which allowed them to sell African slaves in the Spanish colonies of the New World; a very profitable business.
A period during which prices rise.
joint-stock trading companies
Commercial organization where individuals bought shares in a company and received payment on investment; made it easier to raise large amounts of capital for world trading ventures
House of Fugger
In exchangefor arranging loans to Charles V, this got monopoly over silver, copper, and mercury mines in Habsburg of C. Europe that produced great profits; went bankrupt when Habsburgs defaulted loan
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by exporting goods of greater value than those imported
Offspring of intermarriages of Europeans and native American Indians
Offspring of Africans and whites
Reciprocal importation and exportation of plants and animals between Europe and the Americas
Flemish cartographer whose more realistic conformal projection showed true shape of landmasses, but on limited area & made some countries(further from equator) seem larger; useful to captains for its lines of true direction
The triangular trade's middle leg; The horrible conditioned journey of slaves from Africa to Americas
British colony in N. America in modern Virginia that didn't produce quick profits; ts economic & free religion interests could lead to a successful colony (demonstrated by Massachsetts Bay Company)
British North America
consisted of 13 colonies thickly populated,prospered,acted indep. Run by British Board of Trade, the Royal Council, and Parliament. Port city merchants resisted regulation from British
French North America
run autocratically as cast trading area, but was thinly populated because French state couldn't get people migrate; most people hunters, trapers, missionaries, explorers. Without #s & $$$, Continental wars took priority to conquer.
Treaty of Utrecht
French had to cede some American possessions to English rival
Seven Years' War
French surrender rest of Canadian lands in 1763
A period of increased prices especially for food. Wages failed to keep up and caused laborers to have standard of living drop. Aristocrats prospered (could raise rent), entrepreneurs too (expanding market, cheap labor); growth of capitalism
accidentally discoered Brazil in 1500 while sailing to India. He returned with 300,000 spices
India coast location of most important Portugese trading posts along with Malacca & Macao