Crowd management is necessary any time officers deal with _______ or more individuals in a group.
Crowd management is necessary any time officers deal with 3 or more individuals in a group.
What does the first amendment protect and what does it not protect?
The First Amendment of the US Constitution and our state constitution guarantees freedom of speech and the right to lawful assembly.
It does not protect against unlawful, violent, or destructive behavior.
What is the primary goal of an officer?
The primary goal of any officer is to protect life and property.
Officers should use ______ and _________ when confronted with a crowd.
Officers should use tact and diplomacy when confronted with a crowd.
What is a crowd?
A crowd is best described as a number of persons temporarily congregated in an area. They form for many reasons.
What is a riot?
A riot is a "public disturbance involving an assemblage of three or more persons by which disorderly and violent conduct, results in injury or damage to persons or property or creates a clear and present danger of injury or damage to persons or property."
Every crowd has the potential to become what?
Every crowd has the potential to become a riot.
What are the three types of crowds?
What is a physical crowd?
-no significant group behavior
-little or no organization, no unity of purpose
-members come and go
What type of crowd is also known as a casual crowd?
A physical crowd is also known as a casual crowd. They are usually assembled for a purpose but have no common bond and are not dependent on each other to act.
What is a psychological crowd?
2 subtypes of psych. crowd.
sightseer or expressive/agitated
-sustained common interest
-respond emotionally to the same stimuli (ball game, parade etc...)
What is a mob?
A mob is a crowd whose members, under stimuli of intense excitement and agitation, lose their sense of reason. They may also lose respect for law and order and other people.
A MOB IS A RIOT UNDER NC LAW
What are characteristics of an expressive or agitated crowd?
-emotionally involved and can easily become agitated.
-lack organization, courage, and unity
-they are NOISY, WILLING TO THREATEN AND TAUNT OR HARASS POLICE, HOWEVER THEY REFRAIN FROM PHYSICAL ATTACK.
What are the four types of mobs?
ESCAPE MOB- driven by a fright. frantic and unreasonable, people are interested in their own safety. (think courthouse shooter video)
AGRESSIVE MOB- will attack, riot, and terrorize others. Also will destroy property and hurt others. (jail riot)
ACQUISITIVE MOB- This mob has a desire to aquire something. Officer should remove the desired thing from the scene. (Black friday sales, also criminals trying to steal somebody out of patrol car)
EXPRESSIVE MOB- expressing intense feelings or revelry. (futbol game mobs) this mob can be very destructive.
What is the convergence theory?
people use confrontation for their anger but this in turn makes the situation worse and increases hatred between the involved parties. People reveal their true selves in the crowd.
What is the contagion theory?
this is the most dramatic feature of collective behavior. Excitement seems to be transmitted from one person to another.
How can officers counter crowds?
-verbalize commands for dispersal
- seek cooperation
-allow time for the crowd to save-face
-control the amount of officers, too many may lead to uncoordination.
-use more forceful actions if needed.
-call people by name
-USE PHOTO AND VIDEO TO TAKE AWAY ANONYMITY.
Officers can use ________ and ________ to take away anonymity.
Officers can use photo and video to take away anonymity.
When a rumor begins to surface, it must be _______
When a rumor begins to surface, it must be countered.
(T or F) Officers involved in labor duspute situations must preserve the rights of labor protestors and the rights of the company to operate.
What is a riot? (pg 13)
A riot is an uncontrolled and violent disturbance of the public peace by three or more persons joined together for a common purpose.
What is a crowd control plan?
A crowd control plan is developed to give officers direction and establish a departmental plan of action and a GUIDING PHILOSOPHY for police response and action.
-observe spectators and not the event
-avoid unnecessary conversation
-keep outside the crowd
-watch and identify agitators
What is the key to stopping a riotous crowd?
Dispersal is the key, not mass arrest when it comes to stopping a riotous crowd.
Where should dispersal squads be formed up?
Dispersal squads should be formed up out of sight of the crowd yet close enough to respond quickly if needed. This is to keep the crowd from knowing your intentions until you are ready to act.
What should an officer do to control lawful demonstrations?
-protect 1st amendment rights
- keep visible officers to a minimum
-use a liaison between LE and demonstrators.
-use plain clothes officers
What did Scott v. Henrich establish?
"officers need not use the least intrusive force, but must not exceed that force which is reasonable under the totality of the circumstances?
The amount of force used must be __________, ____________, and ___________.
The amount of force used by an officer must be reasonable, necessary, and lawful.
What are the four crowd control options?
MONITOR- watch the crowds progress and development. good for non violent demonstrations.
CONTAINMENT-restraining a large number of individuals within the area they are presently occupying, thereby containing any further agressive activity. (college campus scenarios)
BLOCKING-physical denial of a crowds advance upon a facility, which is the potential target for the activity.
DISPERSION- fragmenting a crowd. useful in congested urban settings.
What are the types of lawful and unlawful protest
Picketing, Parades, and Marches are lawful protests.
It is unlawful to be violent, block building entrances, and to enter premises
(T or F) Officers should remain neutral and impartial during crowd control situations?
When withdrawing from an area, officer should remember this key point.....
When withdrawing from an area, officer should remember this key point. AVOID BUNCHING UP
What are the four types of chemical weapons used for crowd control?
HC- HEXACHLORETHANE- SMOKE- used to disorient, see wind direction, and conceal movement
CN- apple blossom smell, similar to CS and affects lacrimal glands (tears, sinuses etc...)
CS- tear gas, tearing, closing of eyes,
What are the chemical color codes?
CR- violet- sickening
DM- OD green- adamsite sickening agent
What are the forms of chemical agents?
micro pulverized- reduces to fine powder or dust
liquid- agent suspended in liquid solvent
How are chemical agents disseminated?
expulsion- explosion or force spreads micro pulverized agent.
pyrotechnic- smoke, burning of agents in chemical mix to vaporize the agent.
fog- use of hot gases to vaporize a liquid agent.
liquid- expelling force disperses liquid
Officers must consider the __________ before deploying chemical agents?
officers must consider the target area before deploying chemical agents.
What are SIMS?
special impact munitions, also known as flashbangs.
There are kinetic energy munitions and high or low energy impact munitions.