all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms.
Organic chemistry is the study of
4 valence, covalent
Carbon atoms have _________ _________ electrons that can join with the electrons from other atoms to form strong ___________ bonds.
molecules that consist of carbon and other elements.
What are living organisms made of?
Macromolecules are formed by a process called
To form macromolecules, the smaller units, or _______ join together to form ________.
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
Name the four groups of organic compounds found in living things.
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen;
Carbohydrates are made up of ____________ and are found usually in a ratio of 1:2:1
energy, structural purposes
What 2 things do living things use carbohydrates for
The break down of sugars such as glucose.
What supplies immediate energy for all cell activities?
complex carbohydrates, starches
Living things store extra energy as _______________ ________________ known as ___________.
source of energy
Starches and sugars are used as a
a single sugar molecule
macromolecules formed from monosaccharides
_____________ are generally not soluble in water
fats, oils, waxes, steroids
The common categories of lipids are
Lipids can be used to ___________ energy and some are important parts of biological _____________ and waterproof coverings
glycerol molecules combine with fatty acids.
Many lipids are formed when
each carbon atom in a lipid's fatty acid chains is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond.
A lipid is said to be saturated when
the fatty acids contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms
The term saturated is used because
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phospherus
Nucleic acids are macromolecules containing
Nucleic acids are ___________ asembled from individual monomers known as neucleotides.
a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.
Nucleotides consist of three parts:
Nucleic acids _________ and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.
DNA and RNA
The two kinds of nucleic acid are
nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Proteins are macromolecules that contain
Proteins are polymers of of molecules called
arranging amino acids into many different proteins.
DNA contains the instructions for
rate, cell processes
Some proteins control the ________ of reaction and regulate ____ ____________.
bones and muscles
Some proteins are used to form
transport, cells, disease
Other proteins __________ substances in or out of ______ to help fight ___________ .