A decrease in all types of blood cells
5 stages of blood clotting
Vessel spasm/ narrows vessel decreases blood flow
Formation of plat plug/vw needed to "stick"
Clot formation/ as fibrin forms mesh work
Clot retraction / bout 1/2 hr after
Clot dissolution - fibrinolytsis
A antigens & antiB antibodies
B antigens & A antibodies
Type A& B
A&B antigens - No antibodies / universal recipient
Type O neg
No Anitgens / both A&B antibodies / universal donor
Assist the immune system by removing foreign mater, infectious organisms and tumor cells from the lymph.
Tonsils ,spleen, thymus
Hgb, hct, platelets , white cells
CBC w diff
identifies which 5 types of each type of white blood cells are present.
Platelet count, bleeding time, PT, PTT- APTT, INR.
PT - Coumadin therapy
10-13 sec (15-33) therapeutic
ptt or aptt
25-35sec (37-70) therapeutic
less than 2 is normal; 2-3(therapeutic)
Sickle cell anemia
not enough oxygen cause sickle
autosomal recessive trait
occuled vessels causes sever Pain &
pain starts in abdomen then chest,back,joints
sickle cell triggers & treatments
Hypoxia, extreme cold , exercise, dehydration , and infection.
treatment: Analgesia, high fluids to keep blood moving, and apply oxygen Hydroyurea, erythropoietin, BMT, vita B12 , Iron
vita C increases absorption (Not w Milk)
Black tarry stools , constipation, spoon shaped nails and cheilosis, Pica
Dont take with bran or caffeine
treatment for Iron deficiency anemia
give iron or eat diet with iron rich foods;
liver, red meat, fish poultry, tuna, shrimp, green beans , peas, spinach, broccoli, potatoes,whole grains, brown rice
bone marrow fails to produce red cells
secondary cause from radiation or chemical exposure, chemo, viral infections(hiv,hepC)
usually have pancytopenia .
Bone marrow aspiration is used to diagnose it.
Symptoms of Aplastic Anemia
pallor, DOE, H/A, tachycardia, ultimatley heart failure , bleeding problems , risk of infection
Treatment: Transfusions and splenectomy - the spleen is the site of red cell destruction & anitbody production.
hereditary clotting factor disorders
hemophilia (A8) hemophilia (B9), A is the most common treated with cryoprecipitates( fresh frozen plasma), and 8 factor ,B is christmas disease , carried on X gene Only males get disease
hemorrhages into body tissue, spontaneous bleeding in the mouth gums lips and tongue are common. hematuria , bleeding into joints is Painful , History of bruising and bleeding with circumcision
Check for LOC for intracrainal hemorrhage
Von Willebrands disease
hereditary bleeding disorder from defect in the protein VWF& factor 8 sometimes , tendency to bleed from mucous membranes
epistaxis( nose bleed)
excessive menstrual bleeding
seen more in adults, Men & Women bleeding is less sever than hemophilia.
over production of immature white cells, crowds out other cells invades liver, spleen,and lymph nodes , seen more often after age 50, risk factors from chemo & radiation genetic disorders, chemicals,viruses,immune disorders
involve myeloid stem cells in bone marrow they become granulocytes and interfer with RBS and Plateletes. Acute myelocytic leukemia
associated with toxins and genetic disorders and treatment of other cancers
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), involves lymphocytes in the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes, CNS
primarily in childern 70% cure rate with aggressive treatment
chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
primary older adults often requires, No treatment
decrease in granulocytes(neutrophils,basophils,eosinophils), Leukopenia a decrease in all WBC
Symptoms: stomatitis, dysphagia, sore throat, weakness, fatique, fever and chills give Neupogen
Graft versus Host disease
t-cells in donated marrow attacks the recipients liver, skin,GI tract,causing rashes and sloughing , diarrhea , GI bleeding. Onset can be within days or far out as 100 days
removal of spleen high risk for respitory complications and pancreatic complications more prone to infection encourage good nutrition and and flu vaccines, to avoid infection.
not enough vita B12, and the intrinsic factor is needed for absorption of B12, symptoms:smooth, beefy red tougue, paresthesia and movement sensations causes immature RBC's
schillings test & bone marrow aspiration get B12-injections for life
Autosomal recessive disorder , low production of globin , Mediterranean , wide set eyes flattened nose greenish yellow skin tone ,heptoslenomegly
Chelation (deferoxamine) deferal
Used for Iron overload & prevents organ damage
Period of greatest bone marrow suppression , blood counts will b extremely low
Malignancy of lymph nodes , metastasizes to non -nodal like spleen , liver, lungs, bone marrow & mediastinum , Reed-sternberg cells.