Ch 12 & 13: Anatomy, diseases and disorders

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Eye and Ear

sclera

outer protective layer of the eye; the portion seen on the anterior portion of the eyeball, referred to as the white of the eye

cornea

transparent anterior part of the sclera, which is anterior to the aqueous humor and lies over the iris. allows light rays to enter the eye

choroid

middle layer of the eye, which is interlaced with many blood vessels that supply nutrients to the eye

iris

the pigmented muscular structure that regulates the amount of light entering the eye by controlling the size of the pupil

pupil

opening in the center of the iris

lens

lies directly behind the pupil, function is to focus and bend light

retina

innermost layer of the eye, which contains the vision receptors

aqueous humor

watery liquid found in the anterior cavity of the eye. provides nourishment to nearby structures and maintains shape in the anterior part of the eye

vitreous humor

jellylike substance found behind the lens in the posterior cavity of the eye that maintains the shape

meibomian glands

oil glands found in the upper and lower edges of the eyelids that help lubricate the eye

lacrimal glands and ducts

produce and drain tears

optic nerve

carries visual impulses from the retina to the brain

conjunctiva

mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior portion of the sclera

auricle (pinna)

external structure located on both sides of the head. directs sound waves into the external auditory canal

external auditory canal (meatus)

short tube that ends at the tympanic membrane. inner part lies within the temporal bone of the skull and contains the glands that secrete earwax (cerumen)

external ear

auricle (pinna) and external auditory canal (meatus)

middle ear

tympanic membrane (eardrum), eustachian tube, and ossicles

tympanic membrane (eardrum)

semitransparent membrane that separates the external auditory canal and the middle ear cavity. transmits sound vibrations to the ossicles

eustachian tube

connects the middle ear and the pharynx. equalizes air pressure on both sides of the eardrum

ossicles

bones of the middle ear that carry sound vibrations. composed of the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup). stapes connects to the oval window, which transmits the sound vibrations to the cochlea of the inner ear

labyrinth (inner ear)

bony spaces within the temporal bone of the skull. contains the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibule

cochlea

snail-shaped and contains the organ of hearing. connects to the oval window in the middle ear

semicircular canals and vestibule

contains receptors and endolymph that help the body maintain its sense of balance (equilibrium)

mastoid bone and cells

located in the skull bone behind the external auditory canal

photoretinitis

hypersensitivity to light

aphakia

condition of without a lens (may be congenital, though often is the result of extraction of a cataract without the placement of an introocular lens)

blepharitis

inflammation of the eyelid

blepharoptosis

drooping of the eyelid

conjunctivitis

inflammation of the conjunctiva (commonly called pinkeye)

dacryocystitis

inflammation of the tear sac

diplopia

double vision

endophthalmitis

inflammation within the eye

iridoplegia

paralysis of the iris

iritis

inflammation of the iris

keratitis

inflammation of the cornea

keratomalacia

softening of the cornea (usually a bilateral condition associated with vitamin A deficiency)

leukocoria

condition of white pupil

oculomycosis

abnormal condition of the eye caused by a fungus

ophthalmalgia

pain in the eye

ophthalmoplegia

paralysis of the eye (muscle)

phacomalacia

softening of the lens

photophobia

abdnormal fear of (sensitivity to) light

retinoblastoma

tumor arising from a developing retinal cell (a congenital, malignant tumor)

retinopathy

(any noninflammatory) disease of the retina

sclerokeratitis

inflammation of the sclera and the cornea

scleromalacia

softening of the sclera

xerophthalmia

condition of dry eye (conjunctiva and cornea) (caused by vitamin A deficiency)

amblyopia

reduced vision in one eye caused by disease or misuse associated with strabismus, unequal refractive errors, or otherwise impaired vision. the brain suppresses images from teh impaired eye to avoid double vision. also called lazy eye

astigmatism

Ast

astigmatism

defective curvature of the refractive surfaces (cornea or lens) of the eye

cataract

clouding of the lens of the eye

chalazion

obstruction of an oil gland of the eyelid

detached retina

seperation of the retina from the choroid in the back of the eye

glaucoma

eye disorder characterized by optic nerve damage usually caused by the abnormal increase of intraocular pressure (IOP). if not treated, will lead to blindness

hyperopia

farsightedness

macular degeneration

a progressive deterioration of the portion of the retina called the macula lutea, resulting in the loss of central vision

myopia

nearsightedness

nyctalopia

poor vision at nightor in faint light (also called night blindness)

nystagmus

involuntary, jerking movements of the eye

pinguecula

yellowish mass on the conjunctiva that may be related to exposure to ultraviolet light, dry climates, and dust. can spread onto the cornea and become a pterygium

presbyopia

impaired vision as a result of aging

pterygium

thin tissue growing into the cornea from teh conjuctiva, usually caused from sun exposure

retinitis pigmentosa

hereditary, progressive disease marked by night blindness with atrophy and retinal pigment changes

strabismus

abnormal condition of squint or crossed eyes cuased by the visual axes not meeting at the same point

sty, stye

infection of an oil gland of the eyelid

blepharoplasty

surgical repair of the eyelid

cryoretinopexy

surgical fixation of the retina by using extreme cold

dacryocystorhinostomy

creation of an artificial opening between the tear (lacrimal) sac and the nose (to restore draining into the nose when the nasolacrimal duct is obstructed or obliterated)

dacryocystotomy

incision of the tear (lacrimal) sac

iridectomy

excision (of part) of the iris

iridotomy

incision of the iris

keratoplasty

surgical repair of the cornea (corneal transplant)

sclerotomy

incision of the sclera

enucleation

surgical removal of the eyeball

laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

LASIK

LASIK

a laser procedure that reshapes the corneal tissue beneath the surface of the cornea to correct astigmatism, hyperopia, and myopia.

phacoemulsification

PHACO

phacoemulsification

method to remove cataracts in which an ultrasonic needle proble breaks up the lens, which is then aspirated

photorefractive keratectomy

PRK

PRK

a procedure for the treatment of nearsightedness in which an excimer laser is used to reshape (flatten) the corneal surface by removing a portion of the cornea

retinal photocoagulation

an intense beam of light from a laser condenses retinal tissue to seal leaking blood vessels, to destroy abnormal tissue or lesions, or to bond the retina to the back of the eye. used to treat retinal tears and detachment, diabetic retinopath, wet macular degeneration, glaucoma, and introocular tumors

scleral buckling

a procedure to repair a detached retina. a strip of sclera is resected, or a fold is made in teh sclera.

trabeculectomy

surgical creation of a drain to reduce intraocular pressure (used to treat glaucoma)

vitrectomy

surgical removal of all or part of the vitreous humor (used to treat diabetic retinopathy)

optometer

measures visual acuity

fluorescein angiography

process of recording blood vessels (of the eye with fluorescing dye)

keratometer

instrument used to measure (the curvature of) the cornea (used for fitting contact lenses)

tonometer

instrument used to measure pressure (within the eye, used to diagnose glaucoma)

anisocoria

condition of absense of equal pupil (unequal size of pupils)

binocular

pertaining to two or both eyes

corneal

pertaining to the cornea

intraocular

pertaining to within the eye

isocoria

condition of equal pupil (size)

lacrimal

pertaining to tears

ophthalmology

Ophth

ophthalmology

study of the eye

pseudophakia

condition of false lens (placement of an intraocular lens during surgery to treat cataracts)

emmetropia

normal refractive condition of the eye

intraocular lens

IOL

intraocular lens

an artifical lens implanted within the eye during cataract surgery

miotic

agent that constricts the pupil

mydriatic

agent that dilates the pupil

optician

a specialist who fills presciptions for lenses (cannot prescribe lenses)

optometrist

a health profession who prescribes corrective lenses and/or eye exercises

visual acuity

VA

visual acuity

sharpness of vision for either distance or near

age-related macular degeneration

ARMD

emmetropia

Em

intraocular pressure

IOP

acoustic neuroma

benign tumor within the internal auditory canal growing from teh acoustic nerve, may cause hearing loss and may damage structures of the cerebellum as it grows

ceruminoma

tumor of a gland that secretes earwax (cerumen)

cholesteatoma

cystlike mass composed of epithelia cells and cholesterol occurring in the middle ear; may be associated with chronic otitis media

Meniere disease

chronic disease of the inner ear characterized by a sensation of spinning motion (vertigo), rining in the ear (tinnitus), aural fullness, and fluctuating hearing loss; symtoms are related to a change in volume or composition of the fluid withing the labyrinth

otitis externa

inflammation of the outer ear

otitis media

OM

otitis media

inflammation of the inner ear

presbycusis

hearing impairment in old age

tinnitus

ringing in the ears

vertigo

a sense that either one's own body (subjective) or the environment (objective) is revolving; may indicate inner ear disease

cochlear implant

pertaining to the cochlea implant (surgically inserted prosthetic device that uses electrical currents to stimulate the auditory nerve and provide hearing)

stapedectomy

excision of the stapes (performed to restore hearing in cases of otosclerosis; the stapes is replaces by a prosthesis)

audiogram

graphic record of hearing

electrocochleography

process of recording the electrical activity in the cochlea (in response to sound)

audiologist

one who studies and specializes in hearing

otologist

physician who studies and treats diseases of the ear

otorhinolaryngologist

physician who studies and treats diseases of the ear, nose and throat

eyes, ears, nose, and throat

EENT

ears, nose, throat

ENT

oculus dexter

right eye

oculus sinister

left eye

uterque

both eyes

Snellen Chart

chart used to test visual acuity

rapid eye movement

REM

otopyorrhea

discharge of pus from the ear

otorrhea

discharge from the ear (may be serous, bloody, consisting of pus, or containing cerebrospinal fluid)

otosclerosis

hardening of the ear (stapes) (caused by irregular bone development and resulting in hearing loss)

otomastoiditis

inflammation of the ear and mastoid bone

myringitis

inflammation of the tympanic membrane (eardrum)

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