Nutritional Science 4

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Which of the following statements is false regarding the consequences of the following maternal nutrient deficiencies during pregnancy?

Maternal zinc deficiency has no known consequences in adult offspring

The human body typically absorbs less than 20 % of the iron consumed in the diet

True

Blood is the only fluid tissue in the human body

True

Obsessive-compulsive, perfectionist, socially inhibited, compliant, and emotionally restrained describe personality traits of _________________

Anorexia Nervosa

The electrolyte imbalances that are often seen with eating disorders can result in _________________________

Irregular heartbeat and heart failure

What nutrient is added to municipal water supplies to promote healthy teeth formation?

Fluoride

The Nutrition Services Incentive Program provides all of the following except

Coupons to use to purchase foods in the grocery store

All of the following are physiological changes that typically occur with aging except decreased

Fat Mass

The cartilage that is located at the end of long bones that closes when growth ceases is called the ________________ plate

Epiphyseal

Hormones released during pregnancy constrict smooth muscle cells and increase the likelihood of developing heartburn

False

Why are newborn infants given a single injection of vitamin K?

The infant's intestinal bacteria are not yet able to synthesize vitamin K

Recommended weight gain during pregnancy is based on the ________________

Mother's weight before becoming pregnant

Which of the following is not a maternal benefit of breastfeeding?

Shortens the intervals between pregnancies

Macrocytic anemia results from a deficiency of __________________

Vitamin B12

Which of the following is not a risk factor for metabolic syndrome?

Low Trigylceride levels

Multivitamin/mineral supplements should never be recommended for preschoolers

False

An eating disorder is a psychiatric condition

True

Research suggests that there are lifelong consequences to any type of nutrient imbalance during pregnancy

True

All of the following statements are true except

All supplements sold in the U.S. must contain a U.S.P (U.S. Pharmacopoeia) symbol

Most of the members of the Caloric Restriction Society and the CRONies are males

True

The loss of the menstrual cycle among female athletes is a harmless, but common, side effect of intense training

False

At birth, baby Ramon weighs 8 pounds. If his growth and development are normal, what would you expect Ramon to weigh at his first birth?

24 pounds

A low birth weight infant is one that weighs less than __________ pounds

5.5

In the U.S. the federal government regulated school lunches

True

All of the following describe characteristics of the female athlete triad except

Diabetes Mellitus

Which of the following is not associated with binge-eating disorder?

Purging

Existing evidence suggests that only 5% of obese people are successful at long-term weight loss

False

The negative impact of fetal exposure to malnutrition is worsened if followed by low nutrient intakes shortly after birth.

False

Children under the age of 1 should not be given cow's milk

True

Well planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for pregnant women

True

Which of the following is false concerning research conducted on subjects born during weather and war related famines in Africa?

Cardiovascular disease is now the second leading cause of death in adults

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Engaging in at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity can promote longevity

Antioxidant supplements are not necessary and may actually be harmful

True

The development of the ___________ system is particularly dependent on adequate consumption of fat during the toddler years

Nervous

The RDA for __________ decreases with age

Iron

Growth acceleration in adolescence is primarily driven by

Hormonal Changes

Diets rich in vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 are associated with reduced blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine

True

Because the absorption of dietary iron varies greatly, the RDA for iron is not adequate for most people

False

Which of the following is not an effective long term treatment for obesity?

Liposuction

Non heme iron is found in both animal and plant based foods

True

Without adequate vitamin K, blood does not clot properly and bleeding problems can develop

True

Fetal demand for iron is highest during the ___________

Third Trimester

With the exception of ______________, most of a pregnant woman's nutrient needs can be met by consuming a nutrient dense diet

Iron

The point at which the ovum becomes fertilized by the sperm is ________________

Conception

The process by which a fetus's metabolism, hormone production, and other physiological processes shift in response to inadequate energy intake during pregnancy is called the __________________________ theory

Fetal Adaption

All of the following are risk factors for Metabolic Syndrome except

Lower than normal bone density

Appoximately how long would a person's life be prolonged if he or she did not start consuming a Calorie Restricted diet until the age of 55 years?

4 months

Who is responsible for determining the safety and efficacy of any dietary supplement?

The manufacturer of the supplement

Sodium needs during pregnancy are the same as for a non pregnant adult woman

True

Once the placenta has formed, the fetus's and mother's blood supplies will co-circulate

False

Due to the additional losses via the menstrual cycle, adolescent girls require more iron than do adolescent boys

True

Adolescents need to consume four servings of dairy foods or calcium fortified products daily to obtain the necessary calcium intake

True

Currently, the best known treatment of eating disorders is

A team management approach

In the elderly a ___________ deficiency can lead to a decreased sense of taste and smell

Zinc

The absorption of vitamin ___________ increases in older adults

A

Substances that lead to birth defects are called __________

Teratogens

The only thing that will cure ecalmpsia is ______________

Delivery of the infant

Obesity is not associated with an increased risk of

Type 1 diabetes

Which of the following best describes disordered eating?

General term that describes a variety of abnormal or atypical eating behaviors

Which of the following family characteristics is not associated with anorexia nervosa?

Angry and disruptive family environment

Iodine is natural found in many foods and beverages

False

The B-Complex vitamins provide a good source of energy for the body

False

For proper growth and development, toddlers should consume _________ percent of their total daily energy intake as fat

30-40

Federal guidelines in the U.S. specify that school lunches must contain no more than _______ percent of the total calories from saturated fat

25

Federal guidelines specify that school lunches must provide ___________ of the 1989 RDA's for protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, and energy

1/3

During pregnancy it is difficult for many women to obtain adequate iron from diet alone

True

Some of the earliest research on the fetal origins theory took place in ________ adults

Dutch

Frequent purging can result in rapid weight loss

False

Adiposity rebound occurs between the ages of 5 and _____ years

7

Parents should force their children to eat healthy foods to avoid obesity

False

The nutrient needs of a young boys and girls do not differ until about the age of 8 or 9 years

True

Obesity in children is defined as having a BMI at or above the ______ percentile

95th

All of the following can contribute to chronic dehydration in elderly individuals except

Perspiration increases as we age

The offspring of mothers who experienced low pregnancy weight gain have an increased risk of obesity in adulthood

True

Which of the following is not a benefit of breastfeeding for the infant?

The fat in breast milk is difficult for the infant to digest

Why is it strongly recommended that infants not consume honey?

Honey contains spores of the bacterium Clostridium Botulinum

In which trimester of pregnancy is the fetus the most vulnerable to teratogens?

First

From the third month of pregnancy until birth the developing human is called a/n _________

Fetus

The loss of tooth enamel seen in bulimia nervosa is due to the insufficient intake of calcium

False

Excessive vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy is associated with birth defects

True

Research studies indicate that consuming ____________ supplements can cause gastrointestinal upset

Gingko

The energy needs of older adults are higher than those of younger adults

False

Maria is a 3 year old toddler and weighs 34 pounds. How many grams of protein should she consume each day?

13 grams

What is a multifactorial disease?

A disease that has many different causes

Which of the following hormones is referred to as the let down hormone?

Oxytocin

The stimulus that is needed for continued and sustained production of breast milk is

Infant Suckling

Which of the following birth defects has not been linked to maternal obesity?

Cancer

Which of the following best explains why individuals with anorexia nervosa have an increased risk for developing osteoporosis?

Decreased estrogen production

It is advised that all women with HIV not breastfeed

False

During the first six months of lactation, the daily caloric needs of the mother increase by ________ calories as compared to prepregnancy levels

330

Which of the following foods would be the best source of dietary calcium for a young toddler?

Whole milk

Which of the following is not a recommendation to avoid allergies in children?

If a child has a negative reaction to a food, never offer it to that child again

Adolescent food patterns are strongly influenced by all of these except

Parents

If a toddler is overweight, a practical approach would be to place him or her on a low fat diet

False

Research has shown that there is no association between fetal exposure to famine and future risk of chronic disease.

False

Thiamin, consumed in excess, is toxic

False

Men are at a greater risk for iron deficiency than women

False

Which of the following will not help establish healthful eating habits in toddlers?

Use food as a reward for healthful behaviors

Metabolic effects of CR reported in several human studies include all of the following except

Increased energy expenditure

Due to oxidative stress, older adults need to increase their consumption of both vitamin C and vitamin E

False

Which of the following is not a symptom of preeclampsia?

Raw bean sprouts

Which of the following individuals may benefit from dietary supplementation?

People who eat a balanced diet

The loss of tooth enamel seen in bulimia nervosa is due to the insufficient intake of calcium

False

Which of the following enhances the absorption of iron?

Vitamin C

Which of the following statements is false regarding calcium needs during pregnancy?

The extra demand for calcium during pregnancy has been shown to cause bone demineralization and increase the risk of future fractures

The leading cause of death among high school youths is __________________

Automobile Accidents

Which of the following best describes the milk matters campaign?

Government campaign to encourage teens to consume more milk and dairy food

The inner portion of the zygote that implants in the uterine lining is called the __________

Blastocyst

Which of the following is not a reason infants are at higher risk of dehydration than adults?

Infants have kidneys that produce highly concentrated urine

Which of the following fatty acids is critical to fetal brain and eye development?

DHA

High zinc intakes can inhibit the absorption of copper

True

What are dental caries?

Cavities

The let down hormone, oxytocin is activated by the stress response

False

All of the following are characteristics of adolescent eating habits except

Regular consumption of three meals per day

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all breastfed infants be given a ________________ supplement to decrease the risk of developing rickets

Vitamin D

Inadequate intakes of ____________ during pregnancy are associated with neural tube defects in the fetus

Folate

Which of the following is not a risk in the offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy?

Osteoporosis

Taking megadoses of beta carotene while pregnant is associated with birth defects in the infant

False

Which of the following best explains why adolescents are more vulnerable to the unrealistic media images of the perfect body than are adults?

Adolescents are developing their personal identity

Which of the following does not describe a characteristic associated with muscle dysmorphia?

Purging by the use of laxative and/or vomiting at least two times a day

Which of the following is associated with the premature closure of the epiphyseal plate?

Reduced Activity Level

A dietary supplement would not contain

Soil Samples

Which of the following psychiatric disorders causes the most deaths among women?

Anorexia Nervosa

Poor maternal intake of calcium increases the risk of ____________ in the adult offspring

Hypertension

If a pregnant woman is overweight, she should restrict her caloric intake and attempt to lose some weight before delivery

False

Rich dietary sources of DHA include ____________________

Mackerel and Salmon

Snacking between meals is developmentally and nutritionally appropriate for toddlers

True

Which of the following is not related to the increased iron needs in adolescence?

Iron utilization slows down

As compared to infancy, growth rates increase during the preschool years

False

High intake of fiber may be harmful in young children, as it may interfere with the absorption of nutrients

True

Research has clearly shown that the media's portrayal of body image is a direct cause of eating disorders

False

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