The study of drugs, their properties, uses, application, and effects
People have used drugs derived from plants to treat illnesses and other physical conditions for thousands of years. The ancient Greeks used the bark of a white willow tree to relieve pain. The bark contained salicylic acid, the natural forerunner of the active ingredient in aspirin.
The first effective local anesthetic; found in coca leaves.
The drug of the foxglove plant which has been widely used in treating heart disease.
The first useful drug in the treatment of malaria, on of mankind;s most deadly diseases. It was extracted from the bark of a Peruvian tree, the Cinchona.
The theory that germs cause food spoilage.
The use of an injectable vaccine made from killed polio virus and an oral polio vaccine made from a weakened form of live polio virus was important to prevent the spread of the crippling and often fatal disease.
The hormone that lowers blood sugar in the treatment of diabetes-one of the great discoveries in medicine in the twentieth century.
The first antibiotic.
This measure of health has increased by over twenty years in the United States in the twentieth century
average life span
Drugs created by reformulating simpler chemicals into more complex ones, creating a new chemical not found in nature.
An attempt to map the entire DNA sequence in the human genome. This information will provide a better understanding of hereditary diseases and how to treat them.
Human Genome Project
To become a pharmacist in the United States, and individual must have earned a Doctor of Pharmacy degree from an accredited college of pharmacy (of which there are about 93 in the U.S.), pass a state licensing exam (in some states), and perform experiential training under a licensed pharmacist. Once licensed, the pharmacist must receive continuing education to maintain their license.
pharmacist education and training
A significant trend in recent health care has been the effort to control the cost of prescription drugs, one aspect of which is the use of closed "formularies" that rely substantially on substituting generic drugs in place of more expensive brands.
Pharmacy computer systems put customer profiles, product, inventory, pricing, and other essential information within easy access. One result has been that pharmacies and pharmacists dispense more prescriptions and information than ever before.
Of or about drugs; also a drug product.
A drug produced by a fungus that kills bacteria.
The information stored in a computer.
A substance that acts against a toxin in the body.
A substance which harms or kills microorganisms like bacteria and fungus.
Chemicals produced by the body that regulate body functions and processes.
The study of physical, chemical, biochemical, and biological properties of drugs.
U.S. legislation which required pharmacists to provide consulting services to Medicaid patients.
A major factor contributing to the attempt to control costs of prescription drugs.
True or false: The natural drug that is the forerunner to aspirin comes from the cinchona tree.
false-quinine is derived from the cinchona tree, salicylic acid (aspirin) from the white willow tree
True or false: Most drugs used today are made synthetically.
True or false: Digitalis comes from the foxglove plant.
True or false: Cocaine was the first general anesthetic.
false-cocaine was the first local anesthetic
True or false: The average life span in the U.S. increased over 20 years in the twentieth century.
True or false: More pharmacies and technicians are employed in community pharmacies than in any other setting.
True or false: The second largest area of employment for pharmacists and technicians is home care.
True or false: The field of biotechnology has become the least dynamic area of pharmaceutical research and development.
True or false: According to Gallup Polls, pharmacists consistently rank as one of the most highly trusted and ethical professions in the United States.
True or false: Prescription drugs represent a large fraction of overall health care expense.
Give at least three reasons why synthetic drugs are important.
Cost, effect, and availability.
Why was the use of anesthesia revolutionary?
In 1884, Carl Koller, a Viennese surgeon used cocaine as the first local anesthetic which revolutionized anesthesia in previously, anesthetics were administered on a general basis-to the whole body.
Why was Paracelsus's work important?
He rejected Galen's "humour" theory and all previous medical teachings other than Hippocrates. He is generally credited with firmly establishing the use of chemistry to create medicinal drugs. Included in his work is the first published recipe for the addictive drug laudanum, which became a popular though tragically abused drug for the next three hundred years.
Why was penicillin a major benefit in wartime?
Its use saved many thousands of lives during the war and revolutionized the pharmaceutical industry. A period of intense research and discovery in the field of antibiotics began, and many new antibiotics were developed which have dramatically contributed to improved health and increased life expectancy.
Why is the Human Genome Project important to pharmacology?
The study of the human genome has shown that many diseases are related to genetic defect. This has led to the creation of new drugs that can successfully treat many diseases previously considered untreatable. As a result, the field of biotechnology has become the most dynamic area of pharmaceutical research and development.
Why are drug patents important?
It protects against illegal copying of the drug. The company holding the patent is then able to control the marketing of the product and use this as a way to recover their original investment.
Why are pharmacists among the most trusted professionals?
Patients rely on pharmacists to provide information and advice on prescription and over-the-counter medications in easy to understand language. They also routinely ask the pharmacist to make recommendations about less expensive generic substitutes for a prescribed drug.
The drug digitalis comes from the foxglove plant and is used to treat some _____ conditions.
The first publicized operation using general anesthesia was performed using _____ as the anesthetic.
The field of _____ has resulted from the study of the human genome.
c. natural medicine
Quinine comes from the bark of the cinchona and was used to treat:
c. heart disease.
The ancient Greek god of Medicine was:
_____ advocated "bleeding" to maintain balance of the "humours."
b. Shen Nung
_____ showed that an extract of insulin could lower blood sugar in dogs.
a. Watson and Crick
b. Banting and Best
b. Banting and Best
An authoritative listing of drugs and issues related to their use is a (an)
b. materia medica.
b. materia medica.
A substance that harms or kills microorganisms is called a (an)
Care that is managed by an insurer is
a. home care.
b. managed care.
c. short-term care.
d. long-term care.
b. managed care.