AP US History: From the Beginning to the Great Depression (Real)

1234 terms by maf23

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Federal Farm Board (Agriculture Marketing Act 1929)

created in 1929, before the stock market crash on Black Tuesday, 1929, but its powers were later enlarged to meet the economic crisis farmers faced during the Great Depression. It was established by the Agricultural Marketing Act to stabilize prices and to promote the sale of agricultural products; would help farmers stabilize prices by holding surplus grain and cotton in storage.

Emergency Committee for Employment, 1930

...

Federal Farm Loan Act, 1916

a United States federal law aimed at increasing credit to rural, family farmers. It did so by creating a federal farm loan board, twelve regional farm loan banks and tens of farm loan associations. The act was signed into law by President of the United States Woodrow Wilson.

Federal Emergency Relief Act, 1932

created Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) in 1932

Reconstruction Finance Corporation, 1932

created by Hoover in 1932; gave federal money to businesses to rebuild economy

Direct relief

refers to relief that comes from the federal government to citizens (?)

Voluntarism

the use of, or reliance on voluntary action to maintain an institution, carry out a policy, or achieve an end.

Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act, 1930

an act, sponsored by Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley, and signed into law on June 17, 1930, that raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels.
Stopped circular flow of money; made Great Depression worse

Farmers' Holiday Association

a movement of Midwestern United States farmers who, during the Great Depression, endorsed the withholding of farm products from the market, in essence creating a farmers' strike.

"Hoovervilles"

the popular name for shanty towns built by homeless people during the Great Depression. They were named after the President of the United States at the time, Herbert Hoover, because he allegedly let the nation slide into depression.

Dust Bowl

a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands in the 1930s, particularly in 1934 and 1936. The phenomenon was caused by severe drought coupled with decades of extensive farming without crop rotation, fallow fields, cover crops or other techniques to prevent wind erosion. Deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains had displaced the natural deep-rooted grasses that normally kept the soil in place and trapped moisture even during periods of drought and high winds.

"Okies"

a term dating from as early as 1907, originally denoting residents or natives of Oklahoma.
In the 1930s in California, the term (often used in contempt) came to refer to very poor migrants from Oklahoma (and nearby states). Jobs were very scarce in the 1930s but after the defense boom began in 1940 there were plenty of high paying jobs in in the shipyards and defense factories.

"Bonus Army", 1932

the popular name of an assemblage of some 43,000 marchers—17,000 World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C., in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand immediate cash-payment redemption of their service certificates.
Many of the war veterans had been out of work since the beginning of the Great Depression. The World War Adjusted Compensation Act of 1924 had awarded them bonuses in the form of certificates they could not redeem until 1945. Each service certificate, issued to a qualified veteran soldier, bore a face value equal to the soldier's promised payment plus compound interest. The principal demand of the _________ was the immediate cash payment of their certificates.

Douglas MacArthur

an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines Campaign.
Involved in breaking up the Bonus Army

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

the 32nd President of the United States (1933-1945) and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war. The only American president elected to more than two terms, he facilitated a durable coalition that realigned American politics for decades. With the bouncy popular song "Happy Days Are Here Again" as his campaign theme, FDR defeated incumbent Republican Herbert Hoover in November 1932, at the depth of the Great Depression.

Eleanor Roosevelt

the First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. She supported the New Deal policies of her husband, distant cousin Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and became an advocate for civil rights. After her husband's death in 1945, she continued to be an international author, speaker, politician, and activist for the New Deal coalition. She worked to enhance the status of working women, although she opposed the Equal Rights Amendment because she believed it would adversely affect women.

"New Deal"

a series of economic programs implemented in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They were passed by the U.S. Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The programs were Roosevelt's responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3 Rs": Relief, Recovery, and Reform. That is, Relief for the unemployed and poor; Recovery of the economy to normal levels; and Reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression.

First 100 Days

a sample of the first 100 days of a first term presidency of a president of the United States. It is used to measure the successes and accomplishments of a president during the time that their power and influence is at its greatest.
(set by FDR)

"Fireside Chats"

a series of thirty evening radio addresses given by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt between 1933 and 1944.

Bank Holiday

declared on March 5th, 1932; took place from the 6th to the 13th; prevented banks from failing along with the Emergency Banking Relief Act, March 9th

"Brain Trust"

refers to the smart people that FDR kept around him to help him deal with the Great Depression

Harold Ickes

Secretary of the Interior for FDR from 1933-46

Henry Moregenthau, Jr.

Treasury Secretary for FDR from 1934-45

Relief, Recovery, and Reform

The 3 R's that were the goals of the 2 New Deals

Emergency Banking Relief Act

an act passed on March 9th, 1933 to encourage the Federal Reserve to provide emergency cash to failing banks; restores public confidence in financial system

Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA), May 1933

an act that created the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, which, under Hoover gave loans to the states to operate relief programs; the main goal of the administration created by this act was alleviating household unemployment by creating new unskilled jobs in local and state government.

Harry L. Hopkins

one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend Lease program that sent aid to the allies.
(also did work with FERA)

Reforestation Relief Act, March 1933

an act that created the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

a public work relief program (created by the Reforestation Relief Act) that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families, ages 17-23. A part of the New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, it provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal, state and local governments; designed to provide employment for young men in relief families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression while at the same time implementing a general natural resource conservation program in every state and territory. Maximum enrollment at any one time was 300,000; in nine years 2.5 million young men participated.

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA), May 1933

an act that created the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, which put mandatory restrictions on crop production, gave compensation/subsidies for non-production, and even gave compensation for destroying crops and livestock; later declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court

Farm Credit Act, June 1933

an act that made it possible for many farmers to keep their farms and survive the Great Depression. It did so by offering short-term loans for agricultural production as well as extended low interest rates for farmers threatened by foreclosure. Small farmers were able to refinance their mortgages with the aid of twelve district banks, called Banks for Cooperatives. A thirteenth bank served larger farming operations. Local Production Credit Associations provided short and intermediate term loans for seasonal production, insuring that farmers would not lose out on essential crop yields.

National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), June 1933

an act that marked the close of the first Hundred Days of FDR's first term; created the National Recovery Administration (NRA), which made industry, labor, and government collaborate and sponsored boards for each industry; this act also strengthened union bargaining power in Section 7(a)

Public Works Administration (PWA)

part of the New Deal of 1933, was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes. It was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in June 1933 in response to the Great Depression. It built large-scale public works such as dams, bridges, hospitals and schools. Its goals were to spend $3.3 billion in the first year, and $6 billion in all, to provide employment, stabilize purchasing power, and help revive the economy. Most of the spending came in two waves in 1933-35, and again in 1938.

Blue Eagle: "We Do Our Part"

the logo and slogan of the NIRA symbol

structures built during the Great Depression (?)

Hoover Dam, Triborough Bridge (New York), Lincoln Tunnel (New York), Grand Coulee Dam (Washington)

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), May 1933

a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression. The enterprise was a result of the efforts of Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska.

(Federal) Securities Act, May 1933

An act that regulated marketing and disclosure of securities by the FTC (Federal Trade Commission); was strengthened by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the SEC

Securities Exchange Act, June 1934

a law governing the secondary trading of securities (stocks, bonds, and debentures) in the United States of America. It was a sweeping piece of legislation. The Act and related statutes form the basis of regulation of the financial markets and their participants in the United States. The 1934 Act also established the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the agency primarily responsible for enforcement of United States federal securities law.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

a federal agency which holds primary responsibility for enforcing the federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry, the nation's stock and options exchanges, and other electronic securities markets in the United States. In addition to the 1934 Act that created it, the ___ enforces the Securities Act of 1933, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and other statutes.

Joseph P. Kennedy

a prominent American businessman, investor, and government official; father of JFK and all of his siblings; first chairman of the SEC; may have made fortune from bootlegging liquor

Home Owners Refinancing Act, June 1933

an Act of Congress of the United States passed as part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal during the Great Depression to help those in danger of losing their homes. The act, which went into effect on June 13, 1933, provided mortgage assistance to homeowners or would-be homeowners by providing them money or refinancing mortgages.
Sponsored by Senate Majority leader Joe Robinson of Arkansas, it also created the Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC), building off of Herbert Hoover's Federal Loan Bank Board. The Corporation lent low-interest money to families in danger of losing their homes to foreclosure. By the mid 1930s, the HOLC had refinanced nearly 20% of urban homes in the country.

Banking ((second) Glass-Steagall) Act of 1933, June 1933

an act that separated investment and commercial banking (repealed in 1999); created FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation); Increased Federal Reserve's oversight of banking practices

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

a United States government corporation created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. It provides deposit insurance, which guarantees the safety of deposits in member banks, up to $250,000 per depositor per bank as of January 2012.

Civil Works Administration (CWA), November 1933

an administration that built and repaired infrastructure, hired skilled labor; employed 4 million in 5 months; Roosevelt canceled it in 1934 because he was afraid over how much it was costing; returned a year later (May 1935) as WPA

Harry Hopkins

one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend Lease program that sent aid to the allies.

Gold Reserve Act, January 1934

required that all gold and gold certificates held by the Federal Reserve be surrendered and vested in the sole title of the United States Department of the Treasury; outlawed most private possession of gold, forcing individuals to sell it to the Treasury, after which it was stored in United States Bullion Depository at Fort Knox and other locations. The act also changed the nominal price of gold from $20.67 per troy ounce to $35.

John Maynard Keynes

a British economist whose ideas have profoundly affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, as well as the economic policies of governments. He greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and advocated the use of fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions. His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as (namesake) economics, as well as its various offshoots.
New Deal followed some of his ideas; not entirely; promoted deficit spending

Communications Act, June 1934

a United States federal law signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Act replaced the Federal Radio Commission with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). It also transferred regulation of interstate telephone services from the Interstate Commerce Commission to the FCC.

Silver Purchase Act, June 1934

required the U.S. Treasury Secretary to purchase silver in large quantities and allowed President Roosevelt to nationalize all private silver holdings. The act greatly disrupted the world's silver markets and ultimately was repealed in the 1960s.
allowed President Roosevelt to nationalize all silver that was owned by American citizens (with a few exceptions including silver coins, jewelry or industrial materials). Americans had to sell their silver to the government for 50 cents an ounce.
increased price of silver

Indian Reorganization Act, 1934

U.S. federal legislation that secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives. These include actions that contributed to the reversal of the Dawes Act's privatization of communal holdings of American Indian tribes and a return to local self-government on a tribal basis. The Act also restored to Native Americans the management of their assets (being mainly land) and included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations.

Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor

the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman appointed to the U.S. Cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend, Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition. She and Interior Secretary Harold Ickes were the only original members of the Roosevelt cabinet to remain in office for his entire presidency.
(against child labor?)

"Pin Money"

1. An allowance of money given by a husband to his wife for private and personal expenditures.
2. Money for incidental expenses.
3. A trivial sum.

Emergency Relief Appropriation Act, April 1935

passed on April 8 during the "Second Hundred Days" as a part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal. It was a "large-scale public works program for the jobless" which included the Works Progress Administration.

Works Progress Administration (WPA)

the largest and most ambitious New Deal agency, employing millions of unskilled workers to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads, and operated large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects.
It fed children and redistributed food, clothing, and housing. Almost every community in the United States had a park, bridge or school constructed by the agency, which especially benefited rural and Western areas.

National Youth Administration's Division of Negro Affairs

oversaw the participation of black youth in the National Youth Administration; headed by Mary McLeod Bethune

Resettlement Association (RA), May 1935

a U.S. federal agency that, between April 1935 and December 1936, relocated struggling urban and rural families to communities planned by the federal government.

Rural Electrification Administration (REA), May 1935

an administration that provided electricity to rural areas that had never had it before; it gave low interest loans to utilities to facilitate extension of service (sort of a nationwide application of TVA)

National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act, July 1935

an act that was an attempt to restore labor guarantees from NIRA (such as collective bargaining); NLRB (National Labor Relations Board) was created as a result of the passing of this act; mandates good faith bargaining

Social Security Act, August 1935

a legislative act which created the Social Security system in the United States.
was an attempt to limit what were seen as dangers in the modern American life, including old age, poverty, unemployment, and the burdens of widows and fatherless children.
provided benefits to retirees and the unemployed, and a lump-sum benefit at death. Payments to current retirees are financed by a payroll tax on current workers' wages, half directly as a payroll tax and half paid by the employer.

Revenue Act of 1935 (Wealth Tax Act)

an act that was directed at large incomes; raised United States taxes on higher income levels, gifts, estates and corporations, by introducing the "Wealth Tax". It was a new graduated tax that took up to 75 percent of the highest incomes in taxes, starting at incomes above $50,000.; also raised gift tax

Liberty League

an American political organization formed in 1934 by conservative Democrats to oppose the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was active for just two years. Following the landslide re-election of Roosevelt in 1936, it sharply reduced its activities and disbanded in 1940.

Rev. Charles E. Coughlin

a controversial Roman Catholic priest at Royal Oak, Michigan's National Shrine of the Little Flower church. He was one of the first political leaders to use radio to reach a mass audience, as more than thirty million tuned to his weekly broadcasts during the 1930s.
Created National Union for Social Justice, a nationalistic worker's rights organization which grew impatient with what it viewed as the President's unconstitutional and pseudo-capitalistic monetary policies.
He at first supported FDR, but then disliked him after some of New Deal legislation. Also hated Federal Reserve and was antisemitic

American Socialist Movement

refers to the Socialist Movement that occurred in America...(opposed FDR?)

Dr. Francis Townsend

an American physician who was best known for his revolving old-age pension proposal during the Great Depression. Known as the "________ Plan," this proposal influenced the establishment of the Roosevelt administration's Social Security system.

Huey P. Long

nicknamed The Kingfish, served as the 40th Governor of Louisiana from 1928-1932 and as a U.S. Senator from 1932 to 1935. A Democrat, he was noted for his radical populist policies. Though a backer of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election, he split with Roosevelt in June 1933 and planned to mount his own presidential bid for 1936.
created the Share Our Wealth program in 1934 with the motto "Every Man a King", proposing new wealth redistribution measures in the form of a net asset tax on corporations and individuals to curb the poverty and homelessness endemic nationwide during the Great Depression.
A leftist populist, he was preparing to challenge FDR's reelection in 1936 in alliance with radio's influential Catholic priest Charles Coughlin, or run for president in 1940 when Franklin Roosevelt was expected to retire. However, he was assassinated in 1935; his national movement faded, while his state organization continued in Louisiana.

Alf Landon

an American Republican politician, who served as the 26th Governor of Kansas from 1933 to 1937. He was best known for having been the Republican Party's (GOP) nominee for President of the United States, defeated in a landslide by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election.

Schechter Poultry v. US (1935)

a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that invalidated regulations of the poultry industry according to the nondelegation doctrine and as an invalid use of Congress's power under the commerce clause. This was a unanimous decision that rendered the National Industrial Recovery Act, a main component of President Roosevelt's New Deal, unconstitutional.

US v. Butler (1936)

a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the processing taxes instituted under the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act were unconstitutional. Justice Owen Roberts argued that the tax was "but a means to an unconstitutional end" that violated the Tenth Amendment.

National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp (1936)

a United States Supreme Court case that declared that the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (commonly known as the Wagner Act) was constitutional. It effectively spelled the end to the Court's striking down of New Deal economic legislation, and greatly increased Congress's power under the Commerce Clause.

Judiciary Reorganization Bill

a bill that was attempted to be passed by FDR to increase the number of Supreme Court Justices and allow courtpacking; it was a political miscalculation by FDR, and people did not trust him as much after that

Supreme Court Retirement Act, March 1937

an act that permitted Supreme Court Justices to retire at age 70 with full pay, after 10 years of service

National Housing (Wagner-Steagall) Act, September 1937

provided for subsidies to be paid from the U.S. government to local public housing agencies (LHA's) to improve living conditions for low-income families.
The act created the United States Housing Authority within the United States Department of the Interior. The act builds on the National Housing Act of 1934, which created the Federal Housing Administration. Both the 1934 Act and the 1937 Act were influenced by American housing reformers of the period, with Catherine Bauer chief among them. Bauer drafted much of this legislation and served as a Director in the United States Housing Authority, the agency created by the 1937 Act to control the payment of subsidies, for two years.
(created Federal Housing Authority?)

Fair Labor Standards (Wages and Hour) Act, 1938

a federal statute of the United States; established a national minimum wage, guaranteed 'time-and-a-half' for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited most employment of minors in "oppressive child labor," a term that is defined in the statute. It applies to employees engaged in interstate commerce or employed by an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, unless the employer can claim an exemption from coverage.
According to the Act, workers must be paid minimum wage and overtime pay must be 1 1/2 times regular pay. Children under the age of 18 cannot do certain dangerous jobs and children under the age of 16 cannot work.
helped combat child labor and provided many low-income wage earners the ability to support themselves working less hours.

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 1937

originated as the Committee for Industrial Organization in 1935; changed its name in 1937; umbrella union for unskilled labor

John L. Lewis

an American leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW) from 1920 to 1960. A major player in the history of coal mining, he was the driving force behind the founding of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), which established the United Steel Workers of America and helped organize millions of other industrial workers in the 1930s. After resigning as head of the CIO in 1941, he took the Mine Workers out of the CIO in 1942 and in 1944 took the union into the American Federation of Labor (AFL).

Sit-Down Strikes

strikes in which people appear at work but simply do nothing

Roosevelt Recession, 1937-1938

a brief recession that occurred when FDR started reducing the economic relief; a temporary reversal of the economic recovery from the Great Depression in the United States.

Popular Culture of the 1930's

swing music; film; sports...

Hays Code

AKA The Motion Picture Production Code; was the set of industry moral censorship guidelines that governed the production of most United States motion pictures released by major studios from 1930 to 1968.

21st Amendment

a Constitutional Amendment that repealed 18th and prohibition of alcohol

Hindenburg Explosion

took place on Thursday, May 6, 1937, as the namesake German passenger caught fire and was destroyed during its attempt to dock with its mooring mast at the Lakehurst Naval Air Station, which is located adjacent to the borough of Lakehurst, New Jersey. Of the 97 people on board (36 passengers, 61 crew), there were 36 fatalities, including one death among the ground crew.

Scottsboro Boys 1931-1938

nine black teenage boys accused of rape in Alabama in 1931. The landmark set of legal cases from this incident dealt with racism and the right to a fair trial. The case includes a frameup, all-white jury, rushed trials, an attempted lynching, angry mob, and miscarriage of justice.

Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada (1938)

a United States Supreme Court decision holding that states that provide a school to white students must provide in-state education to blacks as well. States can satisfy this requirement by allowing blacks and whites to attend the same school or creating a second school for blacks.

Walter White

a civil rights activist who led the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for almost a quarter of a century and directed a broad program of legal challenges to segregation and disfranchisement. He was also a journalist, novelist, and essayist. He graduated from Atlanta University in 1916 (now Clark Atlanta University). In 1918 he joined the small national staff of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in New York at the invitation of James Weldon Johnson, where he acted as Johnson's assistant national secretary. He later succeeded Johnson as the head of the NAACP, serving from 1931 to 1955.
He oversaw the plans and organizational structure of the fight against public segregation. Under his leadership, the NAACP set up the Legal Defense Fund, which raised numerous legal challenges to segregation and disfranchisement, and achieved many successes. Among these was the Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, which determined that segregated education was inherently unequal.

Charles Hamilton Houston

a prominent African American lawyer, Dean of Howard University Law School, and NAACP Litigation Director who played a significant role in dismantling the Jim Crow laws, which earned him the title The Man Who Killed Jim Crow. He is also well known for having trained future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall.

1935 NYC (Harlem) Race Riot

sparked off by rumors of the beating of a teenage shoplifter. Three died, hundreds were wounded and an estimated $2 million in damages were sustained to properties throughout the district, with African-American owned homes and businesses spared the worst of the destruction.

Great War or the War to End All Wars

a war that broke out in multiple countries between the years 1914 and 1918; some people thought it would be the last war due to the fact that it involved so many countries and caused so much destruction

WWI roots

the causes of WWI: Nationalism, Imperialism, Military Alliances, & Militarism

Kaiser Wilhelm II

the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was a grandson of the British Queen Victoria and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe. Crowned in 1888, he dismissed the Chancellor, Prince Otto von Bismarck, in 1890 and launched Germany on a bellicose "New Course" in foreign affairs that culminated in his support for Austria-Hungary in the crisis of July 1914 that led to World War I. Bombastic and impetuous, he sometimes made tactless pronouncements on sensitive topics without consulting his ministers. He was humiliated by the Daily Telegraph affair in 1908 and lost most of his power. His generals dictated policy during World War I with little regard for the civilian government. An ineffective war leader, he lost the support of the army, abdicated in November 1918, and fled to exile in the Netherlands.

Allies

the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I; included the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire; Italy entered the war on the Entente in 1915. Japan, Belgium, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, Romania and the Czechoslovak legions were minor members of this force

Central Powers

composed of the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria; fought against Allied Powers

Poison Gas

dangerous gas that was used during WWI; mustard gas and chlorine were two types

Neutral Shipping Rights

refers to a law created during the London Naval Conference of 1909 that states that belligerents must warn passenger ships before firing (?); Germany's breach of this law was one of the reasons why the US went to war

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

refers to warfare in which submarines attack all ships regardless of whether the ships are simply passenger ships; The US cut off diplomatic relations with Germany and eventually went to war because they practiced this type of warfare

R.M.S. Lusitania

a British ocean liner designed by Leonard Peskett and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. The ship entered passenger service with the Cunard Line on 26 August 1907 and continued on the line's heavily-traveled passenger service between Liverpool, England and New York City, which included a port of call at Queenstown (now Cobh) Ireland on westbound crossings and Fishguard, Wales on eastbound crossings.
During the First World War, as Germany waged submarine warfare against Britain, the ship was identified and torpedoed by the German U-boat U-20 on 7 May 1915 and sank in eighteen minutes. The vessel went down eleven miles (18 km) off the Old Head of Kinsale, Ireland, killing 1,198 of the 1,959 people aboard, leaving 764 survivors. The sinking turned public opinion in many countries against Germany, contributed to the American entry into World War I and became an iconic symbol in military recruiting campaigns of why the war was being fought.

Propaganda

a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position; usually repeated and dispersed over a wide variety of media in order to create the desired result in audience attitudes.
(for example: used by U.S. in both WWI and WWII)

Sussex Pledge

a pledge by Germany in 1916 to renounce unrestricted submarine warfare; later broken; named after a ship that was sunk

Venustiano Carranza

one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution. He ultimately became President of Mexico following the overthrow of the dictatorial Huerta regime in the summer of 1914, and during his administration the current constitution of Mexico was drafted. He was assassinated near the end of his term of office at the behest of a cabal of army generals resentful at his insistence that his successor be a civilian.

Pancho Villa

one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals.
As commander of the División del Norte (Division of the North), he was the veritable caudillo of the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua which, given its size, mineral wealth, and proximity to the United States of America, provided him with extensive resources. He was also provisional Governor of Chihuahua in 1913 and 1914. Although he was prevented from being accepted into the "panteón" of national heroes until some 20 years after his death, today his memory is honored by Mexicans, U.S. citizens, and many people around the world.
seized hacienda land for distribution to peasants and soldiers. He robbed and commandeered trains, and, like the other revolutionary generals, printed fiat money to pay for his cause.
dominance in northern Mexico was broken in 1915 through a series of defeats he suffered at Celaya and Agua Prieta at the hands of Álvaro Obregón and Plutarco Elías Calles. After his famous raid on Columbus in 1916, U.S. Army General John J. Pershing tried unsuccessfully to capture him in a nine-month pursuit that ended when Pershing was called back as the United States entry into World War I was assured. He retired in 1920 and was given a large estate which he turned into a "military colony" for his former soldiers. In 1923, he decided to re-involve himself in Mexican politics and as a result was assassinated, most likely on the orders of Obregón.

Watchful Waiting

refers to Wilson waiting to see which faction of Mexico would eventually take over; a phrase used by him in a State of the Union Address

Peace Without Victory

refers to Woodrow Wilson's policy on WWI; he wanted to fight the war not to win but to create world peace; he wanted WWI to end all wars

Zimmerman Note (Telegram)

a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire to Mexico to make war against the United States. The proposal was intercepted and decoded by British intelligence. Revelation of the contents outraged American public opinion and helped generate support for the United States declaration of war on Germany in April.
Also promised American land for war efforts

Jeannette Rankin

the first woman in the US Congress. A Republican, she was elected statewide in Montana in 1916 and again in 1940. A lifelong pacifist, she is the only member of Congress to have voted against the entry of the United States into both World War I in 1917 and World War II in 1941. She is the only woman to be elected to Congress from Montana.

"Making the world safe for democracy"

a reason promoted by Wilson to go to war: to make the world a safer place for democracies

Selective Service Act

a mandatory draft that was issued in 1917 for males from ages 21 - 30; not really necessary

American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

the United States Armed Forces sent to Europe in World War I. During the United States campaigns in World War I the ___ fought in France alongside British and French allied forces in the last year of the war, against Imperial German forces. The ___ helped the French Army on the Western Front during the Aisne Offensive (at Château-Thierry and Belleau Wood) in June 1918, and fought its major actions in the Saint-Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne Offensives in late 1918.
Gen. Pershing was a commander of these forces.

General John J. (Blackjack) Pershing

a general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. He is the only person to be promoted in his own lifetime to the highest rank ever held in the United States Army—General of the Armies (a retroactive Congressional edict passed in 1976 promoted George Washington to the same rank but with higher seniority); holds the first United States officer service number (O-1). He was regarded as a mentor by the generation of American generals who led the United States Army in Europe during World War II, including George C. Marshall, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar N. Bradley, and George S. Patton.

War Industries Board

a United States government agency established on July 28, 1917, during World War I, to coordinate the purchase of war supplies. The organization encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency and urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products. The board set production quotas and allocated raw materials. It also conducted psychological testing to help people find the right jobs.
(anti-trust laws suspended during the time this organization was in power; changes Wilson's policy to New Nationalism (Roosevelt) out of necessity)

War Labor Board, April 1918

a federal agency created in April 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson. It was composed of twelve representatives from business and labor, and co-chaired by Former President William Howard Taft. Its purpose was to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers in order to ensure labor reliability and productivity during the war. It was disbanded after the war in May, 1919.

Ludlow Massacre, 1917

an attack by the Colorado National Guard on a tent colony of 1200 striking coal miners and their families at Ludlow, Colorado on April 20, 1914; resulted in the violent deaths of between 19 and 25 people; sources vary but all sources include two women and eleven children, asphyxiated and burned to death under a single tent. The deaths occurred after a day-long fight between strikers and the Guard.

Wobblies

refers to members of the IWW; they were scorned during this time because they were thought to be Anti-American since they did not want to support the war effort; many were arrested during the time the US participated in WWI

Food Administration

was the responsible agency for the administration of the allies' food reserves. One of its important tasks was the stabilization of the price of wheat on the U. S. market. It was established by Executive Order 2679-A of August 10, 1917 pursuant to the Food and Fuel Control Act.
Under the direction of Herbert Hoover it employed its Grain Corporation, organized under the provisions of the Food Control Act of August 10, 1917, as an agency for the purchase and sale of foodstuff. Having done transactions in the size of $ 7 billion it was rendered obsolete by the armistice in Europe. President Woodrow Wilson promoted its transition in a new agency for the support of the reconstruction of Europe. It became the American Relief Administration, approved by an Act (Public, No. 274, 65th Congress) on February 25, 1919.

Smith-Lever Act (Cooperative Extension Service Act), 1914

a United States federal law that established a system of cooperative extension services, connected to the land-grant universities, in order to inform people about current developments in agriculture, home economics, and related subjects. It helped farmers learn new agricultural techniques by the introduction of home instruction.

Lever Act (Food and Fuel Control Act), 1917

a World War I era US law that among other things created the United States Food Administration and the Federal Fuel Administration.

Smith-Hughes Act (Vocational Education Act), 1917

an act of the United States Congress that promoted vocational agriculture to train people "who have entered upon or who are preparing to enter upon the work of the farm," and provided federal funds for this purpose. As such, it is the basis both for the promotion of vocational education, and for its isolation from the rest of the curriculum in most school settings. The act is an expansion and modification of the 1914 Smith-Lever Act and both where based largely on a report and recommendation from Charles Allen Prosser's Report of the National Commission on Aid to Vocational Education. Woodlawn High School (Woodlawn, Virginia) became the first public secondary school in the United States to offer agricultural education classes under the Smith-Hughes Act.

Victory Garden

also called a war garden or a food garden for defense, was a vegetable, fruit and herb garden planted at a private residence or public park in United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Germany during World War I and World War II to reduce the pressure on the public food supply brought on by the war effort. In addition to indirectly aiding the war effort such gardens were also considered a civil "morale booster" — in that gardeners could feel empowered by their contribution of labor and rewarded by the produce grown. This made such gardens become a part of daily life on the home front.

Committee on Public Information (Creel Committee)

an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I. Over just 28 months, from April 13, 1917, to August 21, 1919, it used every medium available to create enthusiasm for the war effort and enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercut America's war aims. (i.e. propaganda)

Federal Highways Act, 1916

enacted on July 11, 1916, and was the first federal highway funding legislation in the United States. It was introduced by Rep. Dorsey W. Shackleford of Missouri, then amended by Sen. John H. Bankhead of Alabama to conform with model legislation written by the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO). President Woodrow Wilson signed the Federal Aid Road Act at a ceremony attended by members of AASHO, American Automobile Association, and various farm organizations.
Under the Act, federal funding was provided for rural post roads on the condition that they be open to the public at no charge. Funding was to be distributed to the states based on a formula incorporating each state's geographic area, population, and existing road network. To obtain the funding, states were required to submit project plans, surveys, specifications and estimates to the United States Secretary of Agriculture.
(federal money to state departments of transportation; rural routes and trunk lines created)

Liberty Loan Drives (War Bonds)

drives in which the federal government campaigned for people to buy war bonds to help with the war effort

Adamson Act, 1916

a United States federal law passed in 1916 that established an eight-hour workday, with additional pay for overtime work, for interstate railroad workers.

Espionage Act, 1917

a United States federal law passed on June 15, 1917, shortly after the U.S. entry into World War I. It has been amended numerous times over the years.
It originally prohibited any attempt to interfere with military operations, to support U.S. enemies during wartime, to promote insubordination in the military, or to interfere with military recruitment; later added on Sedition Act of 1918

Sedition Act, 1918

an Act of the United States Congress that extended the Espionage Act of 1917 to cover a broader range of offenses, notably speech and the expression of opinion that cast the government or the war effort in a negative light or interfered with the sale of government bonds. One historian of American civil liberties has called it "the nation's most extreme antispeech legislation."

Schenck v. United States, 1919

a United States Supreme Court decision that upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 and concluded that a defendant did not have a First Amendment right to express freedom of speech against the draft during World War I.

Eugene V. Debs

an American union leader, one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States. Through his presidential candidacies, as well as his work with labor movements, Debs eventually became one of the best-known socialists living in the United States.

Bolshevik Revolution

a political revolution, mass insurrection and a part of the Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd traditionally dated to 25 October 1917 Old Style Julian Calendar (O.S.), which corresponds with 7 November 1917 New Style (N.S.).Gregorian Calendar.
overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave the power to the local soviets dominated by Bolsheviks. As the revolution was not universally recognized outside of Petrograd there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War (1917-1922) and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918 at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between Russia (the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic) and the Central Powers marking Russia's exit from World War I.
While the treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year, it did provide some relief to the Bolsheviks, who were tied up in fighting the Russian Civil War, and it affirmed the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania. In Poland, which was not mentioned in the treaty, its signing caused riots, protests and an end to any support for the Central Powers.

Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917

an agreement in which the Japanese recognized the US Open Door Policy while the US recognized the Japanese right to extend influence in China; causes problems later as the last part is mistranslated as Japan's "paramount" power in China

Armistice Day, Nov. 11, 1918

the date that WWI ended

Versailles Peace Conference

the meeting of the Allied victors following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers following the armistices of 1918. It took place in Paris in 1919 and involved diplomats from more than 32 countries and nationalities. They met, discussed various options and developed a series of treaties ("Paris Peace Treaties") for the post-war world. These treaties reshaped the map of Europe with new borders and countries, and imposed war guilt and stiff financial penalties on Germany. The defeated Central Powers' colonial empires in Africa, southwest Asia, and the Pacific, would be parceled between and mandated to the victorious colonial empires, based on the different levels of previous development and the creation of the League of Nations.

The Big Four

refers to Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau (Fr), David Lloyd George (GB), and Vittorio Orlando (It)

(Wilson's) Fourteen Points

a speech given by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918.
Also refers to the goals that Wilson wanted to make as part of the Treaty of Versailles

League of Nations

was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first permanent international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing war through collective security and disarmament, and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members.
(not supported by Congress)

Treaty of Versailles 6/28/1919

one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate treaties.[1] Although the armistice signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919, and was printed in The League of Nations Treaty Series.
Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required Germany to accept responsibility for causing the war (along with Austria and Hungary, according to the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and the Treaty of Trianon) and, under the terms of articles 231-248 (later known as the War Guilt clauses), to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay heavy reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers.

Self-determination

the principle in international law that nations have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no external compulsion or external interference. The principle does not state how the decision is to be made, or what the outcome should be, whether it be independence, federation, protection, some form of autonomy or even full assimilation. Neither does it state what the delimitation between nations should be — or even what constitutes a nation. In fact, there are conflicting definitions and legal criteria for determining which groups may legitimately claim the right to ____________. Moreover, ____________ is just one of many principles applied to determining international borders.

Mandates

after WWI required the creation of the League of Nations...(?)

Reparations ($33 billion)

refers to the money Germany had to pay for "causing the war"

Soviet Communism

refers to communism that occurred in the Soviet Union

Democratic Capitalism

refers to capitalism that occurs in Democracies...opposite of Soviet Communism

Collective Security

a security arrangement, regional or global, in which each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, and agrees to join in a collective response to threats to, and breaches of, the peace.
Was attempted to be created in the League of Nations

Irreconcilables

refers to people (like Hiram Johnson & Robert La Follette) who did not want to ratify the Treaty of Versailles

Moderates

refers to people (like Henry Cabot Lodge) who were on the edge about ratifying the Treaty of Versailles

1918-1919 Influenza Epidemic

an epidemic that hit multiple parts of the world and killed many people

Great Migration (African-American)

the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the Southern United States to the Northeast, Midwest, and West from 1910 to 1970.

1919 Strikes

refers to strikes that happened in 1919...(Boston Police Force strike?)

1919-20 Depression

an extremely sharp deflationary recession in the United States, shortly after the end of World War I. It lasted from January 1920 to July 1921. The extent of the deflation was not only large, but large relative to the accompanying decline in real product.

Eighteenth Amendment

established prohibition in the United States. The separate Volstead Act set down methods of enforcing this, and defined which "intoxicating liquors" were prohibited, and which were excluded from prohibition (e.g., for medical and religious purposes).

Nineteenth Amendment

Amendment that gave women the right to vote

The Election of 1920

election in which James M. Cox ran for the Democrats and Warren G. Harding was nominated by the "smoke-filled room" to run for Republicans, mainly because he was handsome and didn't really have any views; also ran on "return to normalcy" platform; Harding won; his presidency became riddled with corruption

Harding Administration

a presidential administration that was involved with more scandals and corruption than Grant's administration; the president died while scandals were being made public;
Calvin Coolidge was vice-president; "return to normalcy"