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For test on 4/16/12

Berlin Blockade

(1948-1949) Stalin was angered when the Allies decided to create a new democratic republic in what was then known as West Germany. He retaliated by blocking Allied access to the sectors that they controlled in Berlin

Berlin Wall

(1961-1989) The communist East German government constructed a wall to prevent East-Germans from crossing into non-communist West Berlin. It was successful in blocking the flood of refugees but led to a very tense atmosphere in Berlin with hundreds of refugee deaths as they attempted to go over or under it

Brezhnev Doctrine

(1968) The Soviet Union declared that it had the right to interfere in the affairs of other communist countries to prevent them from attempting any liberalization

Communist Information Bureau

(Comniform) (1947) The Soviet Union's response to the United States' containment policy was to organize all the communist parties from nations around the world into an organization with the goal of spreading revolutionary communism throughout the rest of the world

Containment Policy

(1940s - 1980s) In response to the fear of future expansion by the Soviet Union, the United States began pursuing a...

Cuban Missile Crisis

(October 1962) Most dangerous event during the Cold War. The Cuban communist leader Fidel Castro allowed the Soviet Union to place nuclear missiles in his country. American president John F. Kennedy initiated a naval blockade to prevent any new missiles from being delivered to Cuba

Ngo Dinh Diem

A noncommunist nationalist who was supported by the US. He established the Republic of Vietnam in the territory vacated by the French

Alexander Dubcek

First secretary of the communist party

Mohandas Gandhi

The most famous leader of the Indian nationalist movement & a member of the congress party. He advocated a doctrine of nonviolence centered on passive resistance to British rule over India

Glasnost

Openness of expression & speech - associated with Mikhail Gorbachev

Wladysaw Gomulka

The 1956 revolt in Poland involved the selection of this prime minister, who was not initially favored by the Soviet Union

Mikhail Gorbachev

Premier of the Soviet Union in 1985. His primary goal was to revive the Soviet Union's economy & raise the country's standards of living

Vaclav Havel

Lead a non-violent uprising against the communist government. He becomes president of Dubcek, Chairman of the Czech Parliament

Helsinki Accords

(1975) the two superpowers & other Europeans signed this. It recognized the responsibility to protect the human rights of the citizens of each country that signed the agreement

Ho Chi Minh

National communist leader of Vietnam who defeated the French

Hungarian Uprising

(1956) Nagy wanted all Soviet Union troops out of Hungary & the withdrawl of Hungary from the Warsaw Pact. This was unsuccessful & let to Nagy's arest & execution

Indochina

Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam

Iron Curtain

In a 1946 speech, Winston Churchill described the European countries that were under the totalitarian control of the Soviet Union as being behind an, "__________...which stretched from the Baltic to the Adriatic"

Nikita Khruschev

Assumed the role of premier a few years after Stalin's death

Marshall Plan

(Economic Recovery Program) (1947-1951)

Marshall Plan

The US chose to fight against communism in Europe by providing economic aid to any country recovering from World War II

Imre Nagy

The 1956 revolt in Hungary was violent and was led by this newly installed premier. He wanted all Soviet Union troops out of Hungary & the withdrawl of Hungary from the Warsaw Pact

Gamal Abdel Nasser

Led the Egyptian government, took the Suez Canal away from a private company controlled by the British & French

National Liberation Front

By 1954, Algerian nationalists had formed this and a civil war broke out as the French Fourth Republic refused to consider independence for Algeria

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

(1949-present) the nations of Western europe chose to cooperate with each other by forming this. Within a few years, it included: Begium, Denmark, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, United Kingdom, West Germany, Canada, and the United States

Perestroika

"Reconstructing" - associated with Mikhail Gorbachev

Prague Spring

(1968) the loosening of strict communist control which led to the quick intervention of the Soviet Union

Truman Doctrine

(1947) stated that the United States would come to the aid of any country fighting against communist aggression. The initial goal was to prevent Greece and Turkey from falling under the control of communist governments, and it was successful

U-2 Incident

(1960) the shooting down of an American spy plane over the Soviet Union

Velvet Revolution

(1989) Soviet Union & Warsaw Pact countries apologize for 1968 invasion

Vietnamization

(1969-1973) A policy initiated by Richard Nixon which involved the gradual withdrawl of American military forces from Vietnam

Warsaw Pact

(1955-1991) it's formation indicated that the Soviet Union was concerned about the NATO alliance; the Soviet Union & Eastern European countries formed this military alliance. It included: Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, & the Soviet Union

Romania

During the revolutions of 1989 that swept across Eastern Europe, only __________ experienced significant violence

Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania

In 1991, these Baltic provinces broke away from the USSR

Communist Countries

Fell into 3 categories:
1) Allied w/Russia - Warsaw Pact
2) Allied w/China - North Korea
3) Independent - Yugoslavia, North Vietnam, and to a lesser extent Albania & Cuba

Eastern European Leaders

Led movements against the Soviet Union's attempts to control their countries:
1) Imre Nagy - Hungary 1956
2) Alexander Dubcek - Czechoslovakia 1968
3) Marshall Josip Tito - Yugoslavia (1953-1980)
4) Vaclav Havel - Czechoslovakia 1989

Soviet Union

Their invation of Afghanistan in 1979 led to:
1) the depletion of soviet military & financial resources
2) the deaths of 2,000 Soviet troops per uear (1979-1989)
3) CIA support of the Afghan insurgents
4) US boycott of the 1980 Olympic Games to Moscow

Balfour Declaration

Britain stated that it supported the founding of a Jewish state in the Palestine

Commonwealth of Independent States

(1991) 11 of the 15 Soviet republics that broke apart from the Soviet Union joined together in this alliance

Czechoslovakia Invasion

(1968) Alexander Dubcek tried to liberalize communism in Czechoslovakia but the Soviet Union sent in troops and replaced Dubcek with more suitable leaders

Ethnic Cleansing

When one group of people wants to eliminate another group of people - similar to what Hitler did to the Jews

Boris Pasternak

Wrote "Dr. Zhivago" in 1957

Soliditary Movement

(1980-1989) Polish labor union - won free elections - eventually had a large influence on Poland - elected the first noncommunist leader since 1945

Marshal Josip / Joseph Tito

He held Yugoslavia to be independent from Soviet domination

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