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The tree in your backyard is home to two cardinals, a colony of ants, a wasp's nest (a colony of wasps), two squirrels, and millions of bacteria. Together, all of these organisms represent

a community

the ultiment source of enery in nearly all ecosysystems is

sunlight

A consumer eating a producer represents

a transfer of chemical nutrients and energy.

The formation of systems typically results in the appearance of novel characteristics called

emergent properties.

A scientist examining a group of cells under the microscope notices the presence of nuclei within these cells. Chemical tests reveal that each cell is photosynthetic and is surrounded by a wall composed of cellulose. These cells must come from an organism that is a member of the Kingdom

Plantae.

Which one of the following statements is not consistent with Darwin's mechanism of natural selection?

Individual organisms exhibit genetic change during their life spans to better fit their environment.

A scientist performs a controlled experiment. This means that

two experiments are conducted, one differing from the other by only a single variable.

The nucleus of an atom contains

protons and neutrons.

Your instructor asks you to look into your microscope to see a prokaryotic cell. You will be looking for a cell that

has a membrane, but no nucleus.

Which of the following statements about radioactive isotopes is/are true?

can break chemical bonds and cause molecular damage in cells.

The smallest unit of an element is

an atom

A(n) __________ forms when two atoms share electrons.

covalent bond

In plants, the transport of water from roots to leaves against the force of gravity is possible due to this property of water:

Cohesion.

as ice melts...

hydrogen bonds are broken

A solute is

the substance that is dissolved in solution.

Compared to a solution of pH3, a solution of pH1 is

100 times more acidic

Which one of the following lists contains only polysaccharides?

cellulose, starch, and glycogen

A diet high in animal products may increase the risk for atherosclerosis. This is because

most animal fats are saturated and some animal products contain trans fats

Sucrose is formed

from two monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis.

DNA differs from RNA because DNA

contains thymine in place of uracil.

Glucose molecules are to starch as __________ are to proteins.

amino acids

Genetic information is encoded in the

sequence of nucleotides in DNA.

Light microscopes

use light and glass lenses to magnify an image.

A scanning electron microscope is used to study __________, whereas a transmission electron microscope is used to study __________.

cell surfaces . . . internal cell structures

Which of the following statements is consistent with the Cell Theory?

The cell is the basic structural and functional unity of life.

We can characterize the fluid mosaic model of a membrane as ____________ floating in a sea of ___________

proteins; lipid

Large, round cells can overcome surface area to volume problems by

becoming smaller, narrower or flatter.

As cell size increases, the

volume increases faster than the surface area.

Cells that lack a membrane-bound nucleus are __________ cells.

prokaryotic

The membranous compartmentalization of a cell

allows different metabolic processes to occur simultaneously.

If a biologist said that eukaryotic cells get their power from bacteria, they would be referring to

the mitochondria in our cells that may have originated as endosymbiotic bacteria.

Long fibers of DNA and protein are called a

chromatin.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

stores calcium ions in muscle cells.

Secretory proteins are

released from the cell through the plasma membrane.

The Golgi apparatus

stores, modifies, and packages proteins.

Contractile vacuoles

prevent cells from bursting as a result of the influx of excess water.

Cilia differ from flagella in that

more numerous and shorter than flagella.

Plants with rigid cell walls are unable to do which process?

phagoctyosis

Which of the following cell structures is not associated with the breakdown of harmful substances or substances that are no longer needed by the cell?

mitochondria

Small, nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids

easily pass through a membrane's lipid bilayer.

Diffusion does not require the cell to expend ATP. Therefore, diffusion is considered a type of

passive transport

Osmosis can be defined as

the diffusion of water across a membrane.

what would happen if you placed cells in a hypotonic solution

cells would swell.

A cell that has neither a net gain nor a net lose of water when it is immersed in a solution is

isotonic to its environment

The act of a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is

phagocytosis.

Phagocytosis is to eating as pinocytosis is to

drinking

According to __________, energy cannot be created or destroyed.

the first law of thermodynamics

Which one of the following processes is endergonic?

the synthesis of glucose from carbon dioxide and water

Anything that prevents ATP formation will most likely

result in cell death

Which one of the following is true about the ATP molecule?

It contains adenine.

When an enzyme catalyzes a reaction,

it lowers the activation energy of the reaction.

Which of the following is a coenzyme?

Vitamin B6

Bacterial production of the enzymes needed for the synthesis of the amino acid tryptophan declines with increasing levels of tryptophan and increases as tryptophan levels decline. This is an example of

feedback inhibition

The second law of thermodynamics states that____________.

energy tends to become increasingly dispersed and unusable.

The active site of an enzyme

is a groove or crevice on the structure of the enzyme.

The term anaerobic means

without O2.

The processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary. During these energy conversions, some energy is

lost in the form of heat

During cellular respiration, the energy in glucose

is carried by electrons

Oxidation is the __________, and reduction is the __________.

loss of electrons; gain of electrons

Pyruvate

forms at the end of glycolysis.

Bacteria that are unable to survive in the presence of oxygen are called

strict anaerobes

Muscle soreness associated with strenuous exercise is at least partly due to

the presence of lactic acid produced during fermentation in muscle cells.

The terms "cristae" and "matrix" are associated with which cellular function(s)?

Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation

Which of the following statements about glycolysis is correct?

production of pyruvate and occurs in the cytoplasm.

During respiration, the greatest amount of ATP is produced during

oxidative phosphorylation.

The location of the electron transport system in eukaryotic cells is

on the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

The oxygen we breathe in is needed for the process of respiration. Which of the following is the major role of oxygen in respiration?

Oxygen is the final electron acceptor at the end of the electron transfer chain.

The term "phosphorylation" refers to the

transfer of a phosphate to a substrate - like ADP.

Actinosphenia elegans is a unicellular, photosynthetic, eukaryotic organism. To which domain does it belong?

Eukarya

ALL protists possess _____________.

nuclei

Which of the following domains is NOT prokaryotic?

Eukarya

Which one of the following statements is most clearly inductively derived?

If any animals observed require organic molecules as nutrients, then it can be concluded that all animals require organic molecules as nutrients.

At which point is an investigator most likely to use deductive reasoning?

in establishing a test of a hypothesis

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